What is Sociology and its meaning. Well Sociology is the study of the development, structure, and functioning of human society. The term was first defined by French philosopher Auguste Comte in 1838 who is known to most people as the “Father of Sociology”. Sociology however extends far more back in time before Comte. People such as Plato, Confucius, and Ma Tuan-Lin during the B.C and before the 1500 conducted studies of the human society taking the first step into Sociology. Because humans are always advancing everyday so is Sociology. With the ability to now travel and reach far ends of the earth Sociologist can expand their knowledge and studies while at the same time increase the advancement of human knowledge.
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Enlightenment Thinkers are known to be the first people to have started Sociology. They were the first to try and provided reasons and general information about the human interaction. Without the uses of logic that already in place most Sociologist would try and find their own answer to the world we live in today. With the ability to detach themselves from the outside world knowledge and principle in place a non-biases study can be made which can lay down some foundation and explains social life. The study of society however did not begin right away instead Sociologist actually started to study how society would be in the future the “idea society”. Sooner no later in the 1800’s Sociologist started to study how society works and with this knowledge they felt that they were better armed against society problems with the ability to explain social changes that were happening each passing day.
Our father of Sociology Auguste Comte was first and engineering student before secretly becoming a pupil to Claude Henri de Rouvroy Comte de Saint Simon, a French social philosopher who was born in 1760 and died on 1825. Claude was an advocate, a person who supports social reforms and scientific reasoning. He believed by applying scientific principle to society that it would be easier to learn how society is organized. Claude also found that with this knowledge it would allow him to find the best possible solution against society problems such as change and how to take control of the problem. Auguste Comte during his time started to learn more about the world and what governs it such as the law of physics by Sir Isaac Newton who had develop the law of gravity as well as the discovery of the subject of natural science such as biology
Comte had the idea that if it was possible to define the world with sciences then why not use science with sociology to study the world even further. A world based on scientific facts which Comte believed that would create a better, understanding society in which social change will bring a crucial role to sociologist everywhere. Soon no later after Comte, Karl Marx came into the scene of philosophy which is quite a branch of sociology. Karl who was born in Prussia which is now part of the country of Germany studied law until his interest started to change towards philosophy. Karl wrote a long document in 1841 in which he was only 23 years old hoping to gain an academic spot light but because of his non-biases view of politics he could not obtain such a position. Turning to journalism Karl wrote about social issues and comments about the government of Prussian but was soon banned. Later because of this Karl started to become more deeply involved in socialism.
Karl moved to Paris where he met one of his closest friends Friedrich Engels. Friedrich Engels who is the son of a wealthy German industrialist collaborated with Karl to create a book called The Holy Family where the book focus on the importance of massive social changed. Engels providing the funds to Karl allowed him to release many of his works throughout his lifetime. Karl writing however started to attract the wrong type of attention in which he didn’t intend too and because of this Paris government officials asked Karl to leave Paris in 1845. After leaving Paris Karl left to Belgium where in a turn of events he became the president of the Brussels chapter of the International Communist League a rebellion group. Soon no later Karl is expelled from Belgium because of this. Fast forwarding upon Karl life and due to journalism, Karl became a true Sociologist. He had gathered a mass lot of information of society during his time but because of that he had gotten kick out of the country or states more than over 3 times. Not only did Karl have stroke of bad lucks but he also had money problems forcing him to pawn his own possession.
After Karl a new revolution came to the world by the name of Max Weber. Max Weber who was a German Sociologist is the oldest in his family. In Weber household politics and academics were a frequent houseguest. Weber being an enthusiastic reader when he was young became interested in a wide variety of areas especially history, religion, economics, and philosophy. Shares Comte’s belief shares the ideas and concerns of other Sociologist. Weber time during the Industrialist Revolution gave him a strong point in the eyes of being a sociologist. The Industrialist Revolution was the time when many factory workers who were poor attacked the inequalities in this term the rich and powerful. This brought upon a major shift in society and balance creating a time of chaos. In Germany Weber started to become active in politics since he was attending Freiburg but then left to Heidelberg. Due to Weber health deteriorating he had never held a permanent academic position.
Emile Durkheim is one of the most successful Sociologist founding father. Like Comte, Durkheim created history within Sociology. Durkheim was a French academic Sociologist and one of the founding father of the “Discipline” He also established an elite university system in France, but with enough method and content that it could be built upon on. Durkheim however became more interested in Catholicism and wanted to be a rabbi himself. No later Durkheim incorporated religion within his sociological work allowing a far more span view of what religion is. Durkheim’s major work, The Elementary forms of Religious Life is still of importance in sociology of religion. His devotion to succeeded academically pushes him to establish sociology as an academic discipline to hold the first full professorship in social science in France.
By devoting his career to creating a scientific sociological system, the moral direction of society would start to go either way. Durkheim had traveled to Germany, where he was amazed by the scientific research. Soon no later Durkheim in 1889 became an editor of the scholarly sociology journal to emphasizing the importance of methodological research. So convinced that the journal itself could go even further, Durkheim produced three more of his famous work to the public further expanding sociology as we see it today.
Herbert Spencer was an English philosopher, biologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal during the Victoria era. Spencer wanted to develop a concept of evolution as the development of the physical world. These would include organisms, Human mind, human culture and societies. Spencer was hyped about evolution before Darwin book had been release. Spencer had contributed a lot on the subject which includes religion, economics, anthropology, and philosophy. During his time Spencer had achieve a lot more than most Sociologists and had achieved a large amount of authority because the only other person who would had achieved something like that was Bertrand Russell in the 20th century. Around after 1900’s Spencer influences started to decline sharply so was his fame. His evolutionary stance lead to most of his famous idea such as “Social Darwinism” Social Darwinism was an influence on economist like Thorstein Veblen as well as member of the American apologist school like William Graham Sumner.
Georg Simmel who was born in Germany, Berlin became one of the most successful Sociologists. His father who passed away owned a very successful chocolate business shop in which Simmel holds a substantial amount too. Simmel studied philosophy and history at the University of Berlin where in 1881 he received his doctorate for his thesis on Kant philosophy of matters and a part of which was publish as ” The nature of matter according to Kant’s Physical monadology. He became a Privatdozent at the University of Berlin in 1885, clearly lecturing in aesthetics but additionally in ethics, logic, pessimism, art, attitude and sociology. His lectures were not alone accepted central the university, but admiring the bookish aristocratic of Berlin as well. Although his applications for abandoned chairs at German universities were accurate by Max Weber, Simmel remained an bookish outsider. Alone in 1901 was he animated to the rank of amazing assistant (full assistant but afterwards a chair; see the German area at Professor). At that time he was able-bodied accepted throughout Europe and America and was apparent as a man of abundant eminence. He was able-bodied accepted for his abounding accessories that appeared in magazines and newspapers.
Simmel had a adamantine time accepting in the bookish association admitting the abutment of able-bodied accepted associates, such as Max Weber, Rainer Maria Rilke, Stefan George and Edmund Husserl. Partly he was apparent as a Jew during an era of anti-Semitism, but additionally artlessly because his accessories were accounting for a accepted admirers rather than bookish sociologists. This led to dismissive judgments from added professionals. Simmel about connected his bookish and bookish work, demography allotment in aesthetic circles as able-bodied as actuality a cofounder of the German Association for Sociology, calm with Ferdinand Tonnies and Max Weber. This activity at the affair point of university and society, arts and aesthetics was accessible because he had been the beneficiary to a affluence from his appointed guardian. In 1914, Simmel accustomed an accustomed captain with chair, at the again German University of Strassburg, but did not feel at home there. Because of the beginning of World War I, all bookish activities and lectures were apoplectic as address halls were adapted to aggressive hospitals. In 1915 he activated afterwards success for a armchair at the University of Heidelberg.
The growth of sociology as an educational self-discipline in the U. s. Declares coincided with the organization and improving of many institutions and universities that were along with a new focus on graduate student divisions and curricula on “modern subjects.” In 1876, Yale University’s Bill Graham Sumner trained the first course determined as “sociology” in the U. s. Declares. The School of Chi town recognized the first graduate student division of sociology in the U. s. Declares in 1892 and by 1910, most institutions were offering sociology programs. Three decades later, most of these educational institutions had recognized sociology divisions. Sociology was first trained in high educational institutions in 1911.Sociology was also growing in Malaysia and Italy during this period. However, in European countries, the self-discipline experienced great difficulties due to Globe Conflicts I and II. Many sociologists were murdered or left Malaysia and Italy between 1933 and the end of Globe War II. After Globe War II, sociologists came back to Malaysia affected by their studies in America. The outcome was that United States sociologists became the globe management theoretically and analysis for many decades.
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Sociology has expanded into a different and powerful self-discipline, suffering from a growth of specialized places. The United States Sociological Organization (ASA) was established in 1905 with 115 associates. By the end of 2004, it had expanded to almost 14,000 associates and more than 40 “sections” protecting specific places of attention. Many other nations also have large national sociology companies. The Worldwide Sociological Organization (ISA) featured more than 3,300 associates in 2004 from 91 different nations. The ISA provided analysis committees protecting more than 50 different places of attention, protecting subjects as different as children, aging, family members, law, feelings, sex, religious beliefs, mental health, serenity and war, and work.
In Conclusion Sociology is ever growing and will expand no matter what. People will always be curious and once a question has been made an answer must be found. Sociology is used to help the society with their lives but also explain why it does happen and how. As the years go by so will Sociology and its growth.
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“HISTORY AND SOCIOLOGY.” Franz Oppenheimer: History and Sociology. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 May 2013.
“Georg Simmel: English Texts.” Georg Simmel: English Texts. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 May 2013.
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The Sociology Manual 1303
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