Issues of Vaccines, Ethics and Safety
|✅ Paper Type: Free Essay||✅ Subject: Sciences|
|✅ Wordcount: 2714 words||✅ Published: 8th Feb 2020|
Many remarkable discoveries have been made in the world of medicine and clinical health over the years. Discoveries, innovations, and inventions, coupled with technology, have played a vital role in revolutionizing healthcare services. Discovery of vaccines is one of the most impeccable developments that have been celebrated for several years. Thanks to vaccines, many incurable diseases can be prevented. A vaccine is as a material used in motivating the manufacture of antibodies as well as the provision of immunity against a disease or illness. Vaccines are made from causal agents of an illness, its yields, or a artificial proxy, treated to operate as an antigen without stirring up an illness (Plotkin, 99). Vaccination, on the other hand, is a form of treatment that makes the body stronger against a particular infection.
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!Essay Writing Service
The origin of vaccines is attributed to Edward Jenner (Plotkin, 19). He is regarded as the originator of vaccinology in the West in 1796, after he immunized a 13-year-old-boy with cowpox, and consequently established the resistance against smallpox (Stern & Howard, 612). Smallpox vaccine is regarded as the first successful vaccine to be developed and tested in 1796 and consequently introduced by Jenner in 1796 (Plotkin, 101). Other vaccines discovered include; live attenuated cholera vaccines in 1897, in-activated anthrax vaccines in human, 1904, cell vaccines in 1948, polio and the Sabin vaccines in 1985 (Stern & Howard, 619).
Vaccines have tremendously helped in eliminating diseases and several illnesses in the US. Several diseases have thus been eliminated with vaccines. Hookworm, malaria, smallpox, yaws, rinderpest, lymphatic filariasis, and polio are among the diseases successfully eliminated by vaccines in the States (Plotkin, 28). Through the eradication of such diseases, the US has been able to save not only money but also lives that would otherwise be lost through such deadly diseases. It is therefore important to acknowledge the role of vaccines in saving lives of people. There has been a 99% decrease in deaths resulting from the above diseases in the US with perfect progress in the fight against diseases (Stern & Howard, 617). Statistics indicate that almost two hundred after its discovery, vaccines can be accredited to saving 9 million lives across the world yearly (Snape et al., 72). Another potential 16 million lives a year could be saved if efficient vaccination were used against all vaccine-preventable illnesses.
Despite the progress and success of vaccines in the States, many individuals and parents still resist the use of vaccines. They cite various reasons such as vaccines causing other diseases while others maintain that vaccines have far-reaching side effects that if not well-taken care off may cause death. It is important for the US government and other healthcare and research industries to conduct intensive studies to establish the truth behind fears posed by such people. However, keen interest should be taken on the ethical considerations of vaccines as well as the safety of their use. Many parents and individuals in the US should not be skeptical about vaccines with the tremendous and imperative developments done in vaccinology over the years. Effective research, ethical considerations, and logical trials of the vaccines coupled with provider responsibility, often make the vaccines safe for human life.
Research, Ethical, and Safety of Vaccine Trials
Safety of vaccines is an essential area of interest that the US government takes an interest in. The U.S.A.’s long-standing vaccines safety system works every day to ensure that vaccines in the market are as safe as possible (Grady, 33). Vaccines safety takes advantage of advancement in both technology and science to provide safe vaccines. The system thus uses new information to improve its efficiency in determining the safety of vaccines. Extensive vaccine safety research has been done to ensure the benefits of approved vaccines to outweigh the risks. Secondly, it defines groups and categories of people that should not take certain vaccines. The safety research consequently describes all side effects associated with a particular vaccine as well as adverse cases reported after the vaccination (Lee et al. 122). Lastly, it evaluates and establishes the link between the adverse events and reported side effects to a particular vaccine. Research is done day after day to ensure the safety of vaccines before they are allowed into the market. Parents should be aware of the government’s Vaccine Safety system that works across the clock to ensure all vaccines meet the safety standards. Research on the safety of vaccines is consequently conducted every day to establish safety standards (Grady, 36).
Intensive research is undertaken before legalizing a vaccine. Scientists often subject vaccines into different tests to ensure its safety and effectiveness in preventing disease. Scientific researchers use enormous controlled environments and collect huge data to conduct tests of the safety of a vaccine (Lee et al. 127). Moreover, it takes a long time to develop a vaccine. It is estimated that developing successful vaccines takes between 10 and 15 years. The vaccines are taken through several development phases such as; research phase, discovery phase, pre-clinical testing phase, clinical testing, and regulatory phase (Grady, 33). Many activities, research, and testes are involved in the phase; however, one aspect may take up to ten years. It is essential for individuals to understand that vaccines go through rigorous processes and phases before they are introduced into the market commanding a high level of safety to the users.
Every licensed and all recommended vaccines in the market undergo years of security test. The vaccines are tested for security before they are licensed and allowed into the market. This test is done by the Food and Drug Administration and consequently suggested for use by the C.D. C.P. (Black et al. 189). However, close to 7% of parents and individuals across the state are aware of the safety tests vaccines are taken through before they are allowed into the market. Strict adherence to research and medical ethics has played a vital role in reducing the side effects and errors witnessed in vaccines. A medical error refers to avoidable unpleasant effects of care harmful to the patient (Lee et al. 126). Medical errors include incomplete or inaccurate diagnosis or treatment of an injury or disease, behavior, or infection. Frequent vaccine errors, on the other hand, include; wrong dose, contaminated/expired vaccines, wrong age, and wrong interval or time (Grady, 33). The vaccines used in the States have a tremendous guarantee of safety to the users. Intensive research, coupled with strict adherence to ethics, have both contributed to the protection of vaccines and the excellent progress and development.
Patient safety is a critical phenomenon in healthcare. Administration of vaccines, consequently, requires strong responsibility from the providers. Healthcare services do not end at its administration but transcend to follow-ups and advocacy made long after medication is administered. Healthcare providers play a crucial role in vaccine safety. It is the responsibility of healthcare workers to ensure proper handling and administration of vaccines (Tameris et al., 1024).
Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs.View our services
Moreover, healthcare providers ensure sufficient storage, use, and implementation of vaccination services and programs to provide the best results. Providers also ensure that patients receive the best and recommended vaccines for their particular illness. Provision of essential information on the risks and benefits of vaccines as well as answering questions on the safety of vaccines are other vital responsibilities played by providers (Nyhan et al., 839). Providers also have a substantial role in vaccination. The success of vaccination programs hugely depend on them. Ensuring the safety of the vaccines is, however, the most outstanding role of provider.
However, there has been a systematic increase in the number of unvaccinated children rejected by schools and physicians in the United States of America. As more parents refuse vaccines, physicians, on the other hand, tend to turn away such children. Turning away, children or patients, in general, are against the principles of physicians (Tameris et al., 1028). Nevertheless, to sound a strong warning and message about the importance of vaccinating children, physicians have begun turning away unvaccinated children. Taking strong stances such as sending away unvaccinated children will save many children from the dangers resulting from failure to vaccinate children (Tameris et al., 1027). Turning away unvaccinated children by doctors has consequently reduced the level of vaccine hesitancy, which has become a bigger issue in the US in recent years. Vaccine hesitancy is responsible for and contributed to the Disneyland measles outbreak in 2015 (Black et al. 190). Some doctors in the US, therefore, adopted dismissing unvaccinated children as a policy aimed at reducing the chances of an outbreak of diseases that can be prevented through vaccination. The practice of dismissing unvaccinated children by some doctors has attracted mixed reactions with some terming the practice ads being unprofessional and against the principles under which the physicians operate. The threat to dismiss has, however, coerced some families into conceding and agreeing to vaccinate their children (Nyhan et al., 840). Just like doctors, teachers are also turning away unvaccinated children. Teachers argue that even though vaccination reduces the chances of contracting a disease, it cannot be 100% effective. Exclusion of unvaccinated children from others is, therefore, taken to reduce the chances of children contracting the diseases from unvaccinated children (Snape et al., 75).
Though vaccines help in preventing diseases, it is not 100% effective. The fact that some people can still contract a disease even after vaccination makes several individuals turn away from promoting vaccine doctors (Black et al. 188). Such people cite reasons like; fear of side effects of vaccines, illness, as well as deaths. Some also argue that vaccine-preventable diseases have been eliminated in their areas or countries that do not need vaccination (Tameris et al., 1027). Giving multiple vaccinations to a child at the same time may cause harmful effects and immune overload. Another important factor that has led to individuals turning away vaccine promoting doctors is the notion that many vaccinated people have died; therefore, there is no need for vaccination (Nyhan et al., 841).
Infant Child Illnesses Induced by Vaccines
Over the years, there has been an increase in the belief that vaccination induces some illness to children. Some people believe that vaccinating children may expose them to diseases such as autism. Vaccines may subject children to the risk of contracting diseases such as redness, swelling, soreness, and tenderness or the arm or thigh. Other hazards include; fussiness, fever, poor appetite, tiredness, and vomiting (Snape et al., 77). These risks, however, occur after a short while. The conditions do not last long; therefore, they have little effects on children. Parents should not worry about the risks and conditions associated with vaccination. Current research indicates that vaccines contain killed, live of altered microorganisms, heavy metals, mutilated proteins, or carcinogens (Tameris et al., 1028). Injecting a child with a vaccine containing such elements can possibly induce illness in them. Intensive research and scientific experiments conducted over the years show that several vaccines cause disease in children. For instance, a Swedish study found that there is a 400% increase in risks of contracting narcolepsy amongst adolescents and children vaccinated with Pandemrix. Vaccines do cause and sometimes contribute to diseases (Tameris et al., 1022). Parents and other individuals should, therefore, be wary of the numerous illnesses induced by vaccines. The government and other research institutes should consequently conduct proper studies to establish solutions towards the illnesses caused by vaccines.
Despite the numerous misconceptions against vaccines, the government and other national and international health organizations have initiated mass vaccination campaigns. World Health Organization, alongside other health organizations in conjunction with the government, have been championing for vaccinations. The campaigns are mainly aimed at ensuring the people, especially children, and adolescents, are adequately vaccinated against diseases preventable through vaccination (Lee et al. 123). The government, however, ensures that the vaccines used are free from adverse side effects and do not cause any illness to children. Safety and ethical considerations have played a crucial role in ensuring that proper vaccination practice is realized in the States (Snape et al., 79).
In conclusion, it is right to conclude that vaccines has been tremendously useful since the discovery of the first vaccine. Many lives are being saved every year, thanks to the effective use of vaccinations. It is, therefore, essential for the US government to encourage prevention. However, current research studies and close analysis into the practice indicates that vaccination is not always safe. The method comes along with several side effects, while other vaccines induce diseases onto children. Care should, therefore, be taken to ensure strong safety of the vaccines. One factor that renders vaccines unsafe is the failure to follow ethics and safe practices. Several people often fail to follow safe application practices, thereby making children vulnerable to the side effects of vaccines. Research should be conducted to ensure strict adherence to ethics and safe practices in the administration of vaccines. Not all vaccines are safe. Therefore, individuals need to conduct thorough investigations before making a decision on which vaccines to use.
- Black, Steven, et al. “Efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children.” The Pediatric infectious disease journal 19.3 (2000): 187-195.
- Grady, Christine. “Ethics of vaccine research.” Research Ethics. Routledge, 2006. 32-41.
- Lee, Grace M., et al. “H1N1 and seasonal influenza vaccine safety in the vaccine safety datalink project.” American journal of preventive medicine 41.2 (2011): 121-128.
- Nyhan, Brendan, et al. “Effective messages in vaccine promotion: a randomized trial.” Pediatrics 133.4 (2014): e835-e842.
- Plotkin, Stanley A., ed. History of vaccine development. Springer Science & Business Media, 2011.
- Snape, Matthew D., et al. “Immunogenicity of two investigational serogroup B meningococcal vaccines in the first year of life: a randomized comparative trial.” The Pediatric infectious disease journal 29.11 (2010): e71-e79.
- Stern, Alexandra Minna, and Howard Markel. “The history of vaccines and immunization: familiar patterns, new challenges.” Health Affairs 24.3 (2005): 611-621.
- Tameris, Michele D., et al. “Safety and efficacy of MVA85A, a new tuberculosis vaccine, in infants previously vaccinated with BCG: a randomized, placebo-controlled phase 2b trial.” The Lancet 381.9871 (2013): 1021-1028.
Cite This Work
To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:
Related ServicesView all
DMCA / Removal Request
If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: