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How Temperament and Personality Affect Aggressive and Passive Behavior

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Psychology
Wordcount: 2038 words Published: 23rd Sep 2019

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How Temperament and Personality Affect Aggressive and Passive Behavior


The purpose of this research is to determine how temperament and personality affect aggressive and passive behave. It is hypothesized that temperament and personality affect aggressive and passive behavior. 400 parents of infants ranging from 3 to 12 months will be interviewed to evaluate the effect personality has on aggressive and passive behavior. The data will be analyzed through Microsoft Excel to determine what statistical link there may be between temperament/personality and aggressive/passive behavior.

How Temperament and Personality Affect Aggressive and Passive Behavior

The study of temperament and personality is linked to psychopathology that has been marked by an experienced surge of interest. Such stands have poised to deter the fundamental understanding of many psychological disorders. This is a surefire that personality and temperament have been dormant for a long period since learning-based and psychodynamic theories have been observed to dominate this field. In this connection, the literature of personality and temperament has grown outside the scope of the purview of several clinical scientists. Based on the work conducted by Thomas and Chess, constant efforts have been reported to foster parallel lines of research according to mutually informative designs. Taking a good example of family conflict, we can avow that environmental and genetics and environment form part of aggressive and passive behavior (Horwitz et al., 2011). In this regard, according to Rettew & McKee (2005), genetics has impacts on aggressive personality. Therefore, temperament and personality experiences in home settings are important in outlining their effect on human biology and behavior. This research proposal is set to align and explore the work of Thomas and Chess as well as the existing literature that point out the connection between temperament/personality and aggressive and passive behavior. The research will target home-based settings while collecting information. The research will consider ethical frameworks while reviewing and evaluating the concepts which correlate to personality and temperament, as well as their research including experimental parameters such as aggressive and passive behavior and their origin or development.

Literature review

In the article, A Proposal about a Prediction Strategy from Normality to Psychopathology According to Nine Types Temperament Model, Yilmaz et al. (2017) focus on the understanding of personality and temperament and their implications on psychopathologies. The study is narrowed on the metrics that help us understand the relationship between personality, temperament, and psychopathology. Rothbart, Ahadi, & Evans (2000) offer an important review which supports the above context. The authors evaluate how temperament approaches can be used to assess developmental and biological processes as well as their integration to further study of personality within the sub-disciplines of psychology. According to Rothbart, Ahadi, & Evans, the fundamental measurement strategies of temperament in early childhood include effortful control, effective attentional and motivational systems, fear, frustrations, and anger. Within the same context, Sharma & Raju (2013) explore the concept of romantic relationship to explain how personality correlates to aggression. According to the study objective and results, Sharma & Raju (2013) connote that personality characteristics such as courteousness, openness, and agreeableness does not align with forms of aggression. Therefore, the authors conclude that understanding the link between aggressive and passive behavior and romantic relationship can help us conceptualize intervention programs for temperament. Besides, Horwitz and the colleagues (2011) remind that environment and genetics has impacts on major crises on global families and which can be explained by parent personality. Using a sample of 876 same-sex pair of twins, the authors demonstrate that genetics has effects on aggressive and passive personalities as reflected in family conflicts. This indicates that personality and temperament can help in understanding human biology and behavior.

Research Methodology

This research will be a longitudinal study conducted in home-based urban areas. The parents and children will be selected randomly. Parent interviews will be carried out to obtain general and detailed information regarding children pattern of reaction in different situations. This study will employ content analysis of the reported reactions to determine the scope of temperamental variability dimensions such as rhythmicity of sleeping or eating habits, activity level, predominant mood, adaptability, the degree of stimulation response, distractibility, and intensity response. The study will also develop parent-report questionnaires that will help in the assessment of temperamental variability as a concept of human behavior genetics (Rettew & McKee, 2005). The research will also integrate home based observation measures as well as laboratory oriented evaluations of the children’s temperament. The research sets to interview over 400 parents and who act as informants of their children. The infants considered in this study will be at the age of 3 to 12 months.  More than that, the parents will be asked to identify the frequency of specific behaviors for the last three weeks making good of their global judgments. Moreover, to evaluate the effects personality on aggressive and passive behavior, a population sample of 76 males and 74 females within the age range of 18 to 30 years will be considered.

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The data collected will be based on aggressive and passive behavior. The behavior qualities will be internalized and externalized, and finally correlated with the existing literature regarding the effects of temperament and personality on human biology and behavior. The gathered data will be analyzed using Microsoft Excel. Tables, graphs, and charts will be prepared to examine the link between temperament/ personality and aggressive/ passive behavior.

Research Ethics

The research will utilize philosophical associations which will restrict the author within the boundaries of ethical thinking. Therefore, as a way of upholding ethical requirement throughout the study, various approaches will be considered in the data collection process to gather ideas from the participants without falsifying the research methodology. As an implication, the study will not take sides or display a manner that disapproves participants’ ideologies. Moreover, the information will be recorded regardless of whether it is negative or positive to the research objective to avoid underreporting. Importantly, to protect and warrant the privacy of the participants, the data collected will be destroyed after analysis has been done by placing the questionnaires and other response papers into a shredder. By doing so, this will prevent the sharing of information that would otherwise promote vices of plagiarism, falsified authorship, and prevent disclosure of harmful information. The participants will be informed about the purpose of the research to foster loyalty as outlined in the consent form.

Discussion and Implication of the Study

Basic temperamental processes are fundamental and distinguishing features that are observable in toddlers or during early childhood development stages. They are, therefore, transitioned from childhood throughout the lifespan to adulthood. More so, these qualities are connected to psychological and behavioral models as well as the characteristics observed in nonhuman species. This implies that they are the initial basis of predisposition and orientation of children towards other humans in the physical world. They are responsible for shaping our understanding of the present world. The systems that will be adopted in this research will focus on the aggressive and passive behaviors and which will include anger, fear or frustrations. It is believed that this research will achieve a positive landmark in perpetuating the study that offers a strong link between children temperament and adult personality versus aggressive and passive behavior which is the core goal.

Limitations of the Research

The research finding and the clinical implications ought to be viewed within certain limitations. Firstly, the longitudinal nature of the collected information may fail to provide an in-depth understanding of how aggressive and passive behaviors in our families unfold with time. Secondly, this research is vulnerable to potential setbacks linked to the self-reporting nature of the information. This may limit the strong connection between the research variables and which are objective approaches towards behavioral evaluation. However, the study will utilize the multi-information assessment to eliminate possible biases. More than that, the study has a wide range of toddlers and adults in the population sample, that is, 3 to 12 months and 18 to 30 years respectively. The final limitation of this study concentrates on the temperament aspects that should be examined singly to predict the outcomes of a child’s behavior (Beekman et al., 2015). This has, however, offered temperamental dimensions to facilitate specific predictions. On the contrary, these aspects are not perceived as conceptually orthogonal and are assumed to operate independently from each other. This dictates that fact that information inherent in close relations can be lost.

Summary and Conclusion

In summary, temperament and personality are applied to phenomena of aggression and passive behavior. Therefore, the research will help in understanding how these concepts are intertwined can help in determining why some children are shy while others are outgoing. This reckons on the fact that toddlers have unique gifts and their personalities distinguish them. Therefore, it is the role of parents to understand how they can promote healthy developments for their children.


  • Yilmaz, E. D., Gok, C., Unal, O., Ozkan, A., & Selcuk, Z. (2017). A Proposal about a Prediction Strategy from Normality to Psychopathology According to Nine Types Temperament Model. Journal of Psychiatry and Psychiatric Disorders1(4), 224-243.
  • Rothbart, M. K., Ahadi, S. A., & Evans, D. E. (2000). Temperament and personality: origins and outcomes. Journal of personality and social psychology78(1), 122.
  • Sharma, M. K., & Raju, M. (2013). Relationship of personality dimensions and aggression in romantic relationship among youth. Indian journal of psychological medicine35(2), 197-202.
  • Horwitz, B. N., Ganiban, J. M., Spotts, E. L., Lichtenstein, P., Reiss, D., & Neiderhiser, J. M. (2011). The role of aggressive personality and family relationships in explaining family conflict. Journal of family psychology :JFP : journal of the Division of Family Psychology of the American Psychological Association (Division 43)25(2), 174-83.
  • Rettew, D. C., & McKee, L. (2005). Temperament and its role in developmental sychopathology. Harvard review of psychiatry13(1), 14-27.
  • Beekman, C., Neiderhiser, J. M., Buss, K. A., Loken, E., Moore, G. A., Leve, L. D., Ganiban, J. M., Shaw, D. S., … Reiss, D. (2015). The Development of Early Profiles of Temperament: Characterization, Continuity, and Etiology. Child development86(6), 1794-811.


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