Political parties and electoral systems are the most important things in every democracy. Democracy cannot survive if the political system not based on democratic political parties. So In order to be considered as a democratic, the countries need to have political parties and an electoral system. The variations in the number of political parties and types of electoral systems found throughout the world leads one to wonder whether there is an ideal combination of the two that increases democracy. Are there an ideal number of parties that a country should try to foster? Does the choice of an electoral system have consequences beyond the electing of officials? (Amanda l Hoffman)
Political parties are not the only political groupings within the system policy. The parties actually live with, among other pressure groups which are accustomed to classifying corporations, unions, clubs â€¦ etc.
Furthermore political participation is the act by which citizens express their opinions on in public affairs. It is civil liberties, freedom of expression, freedom of association, freedom of assembly, freedom of manifestation. The political parties, groups Interest and other forms of collective mobilization are as the main modes of political participation.
Currently the political parties and electoral system have become the main measures or standards to evaluate the level of democracy in any country around the world.
What is a political party?
The term political party conveys different meaning to different people that are reflected in their definitions.
“Any group, however loosely organized, seeking to elect government officeholders under a given label “Leon Epstein. Emphasize the principal activities that parties undertake.
“a body of men united, for promoting by their joint endeavors the national interest, upon some particular principal in which they are all agreed” Edmund Burke, emphasize the ideological goals of parties.
A group of persons share the same ideas policies, or an organization serves the citizen. The existence of political parties allows a structuring politics by offering voters choices.
While others focus on the nature of organization they define the political party as “a community with particular structure”
It generally refers to an organization that mobilizes voters on behalf of a common set of interests or ideologies. Parties play an important role in political life by setting policy agendas, nominating candidates for public office, monitoring the work of elected representatives and organizing and directing human and material resources toward a common goal.
Political party systems: there are three types of political party system single party system, two party system and malty party system.
1-2-1 single party system: The single party is a situation where one party exercises effective power. It is characterized by the absence of political alternative.
In one-party states, the law allows only one party, that of government. It can sometimes tolerate the presence of minority parties if they accept the dominance of the ruling party.
It also happens that the opposition parties are officially allowed, but the ruling party succeeds in keeping themselves in power through corruption, cronyism or electoral fraud. These countries are generally accused of using practices contrary to human rights against political opponents. Example Communist party in china, the Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro in Montenegro.
1-2-2 two parties system: Where two parties dominate political life, and where it is virtually impossible for other parties to win an election. In this situation, the two parties in opposition are generally broad coalitions that seek to present the broadest possible programs. Generally, these two coalitions are compared against one another using the traditional left-right axis: free enterprise, lower costs on one side. Example the United States and United Kingdom.
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1-2-3 multiparty system: coexists alongside the two parties dominant incumbent, a third party with significant electoral weight and that is emerging. This third party can occasionally happen in second place in the elections but has never exercised the power. In rare cases such as Finland there may be a tri-party system stable, in which each party could arrive alternately at the head of elections. It is very rare that four parties can coexist and form government independently. The parties are then forced to make deals to form a coalition government. Example Canada, Ireland.
1-3 Political party roles:
Political parties can be considered as the link between the citizens and their government they do this in straightforward fashion by mobilizing voters behind their banner and in behalf of the candidate who have received their nominations. The party is electorally victorious than has the task to organize and manage the government.
1-3-1 mobilizing the electorate: the first role of political parties is to make a linkage between citizen and the government. To channel the vote toward the nominees the major parties is an organizational task of herculean proportions. the power of the parties to mobilize the electorate is based in large part on the commitment most voters maintain to one or other parties. So effective if the parties’ hold on some voters that the substantial proportion of the electorate knows how it will cast its vote in the election even the candidates are announced.
1-3-2 organizing the government: the winner party has the opportunity and also the responsibility to organize the government. The party with the legislature majority provides the chairs of legislative committees and subcommittees, as well as the majority of each committee’s membership. The successful presidential candidate become his party leader and makes several hundred executive appointments from among his closest preelection advisers that lifted him to power.
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