Pang Sheng Yang
In this world, there are hundreds and thousands of communicable diseases that are spread from person to another, at any age, young or old. Some are deadly, and some are not. Some are treatable and some are not. Communicable disease, also known as infectious diseases, transmitted through direct contact or indirectly from infected individuals, that includes: being bitten by an animal and/or contact with blood and bodily fluids.
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Therefore, there are hundreds and thousands of communicable diseases in this world, but to make it short, the diseases that were going to be included are common diseases in America. The flu, also known as influenza, is a disease that transmitted through coughing and sneezing, mostly happen during the winter season. People get the flu by breathing in the tiny wet droplets from a person’s coughs or sneezes, or by touching objects that contain these drops and touching any body parts. Also, a person with a weak immune system can spread the flu for a longer time period than someone with a healthier immune system.
The mechanisms by which the flu cause in humans is believed to be the obstruction of ACTH, known as adrenocorticotropic hormone, triggering low cortisol levels. The process that enables the flu to enter cells is the cleavage viral of hemagglutinin protein by one out of several human proteases. The structure of hemagglutinin can only found in the throat and lungs by proteases, allowing the viruses, not to infect other tissues in the body. However, hemagglutinin, yet, can permit the virus to spread throughout the body. Viral hemagglutinin protein is responsible for processing both strain infect and where human respiratory tract strain will bind. The strains are easily transmitted between people who had hemagglutinin proteins that bind in an upper part of the respiratory tract to receptors, such as in the nose, throat, and mouth.
Another infectious disease is called Hepatitis B. Hepatitis B is a virus that causes damage to the liver, and it can be spread from mother to infant during childbirth through blood and bodily fluids. Developing Hepatitis B depends on how well your immune system reacts to the infection, which means that a person who has a weak immune system, are at a higher risk of developing the infection after being exposed. However, people who are exposed to the infection may not have any signs or symptoms, but others may experience symptoms similar to the flu, such as a fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting.
Hepatitis B hinder the functions of the liver by reproducing in hepatocytes, bind to the cell domain of viral surface antigen and by endocytosis. But viral DNA and proteins had also been transmitted in cellular receptors, existing in extrahepatic cells. During Hepatitis B infection, the immune response causes hepatocellular damage and viral clearance. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), destroy Hepatitis B infection by killing infected cells and resulting antiviral cytokines.
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Lastly, HIV/AIDS is another common infection in this world. HIV is a virus that causes AIDS and can be spread through blood, semen, and vaginal fluids. Symptoms, according to the infection, will get flu-like symptoms, since no symptoms are being shown among most people, who ae affected by the disease. There, is no cure for AIDS, but the best thing you can do to slow down the damage is: stay healthy, eat well, exercise regularly and get plenty of rest.
HIV infects, primarily, cells with CD4 cell-surface receptor molecules, by using them to gain entry. In macrophages and other cells lacking CD4 receptors, such as fibroblasts, a receptor site, which may be used instead for entry of HIV. Primary cells that target HIV infections includes, principally blood monocytes and tissue macrophages, T-lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) lymphocytes, dendritic cells, hematopoietic stem cells, microglial cells in the brain, gastrointestinal epithelial cells, and etc.
Communicable diseases are infections that spread from an individual to another individual. So what? Many people, no matter what age, can get infected by any of the diseases, mention above, or by other diseases. Taking good care of yourself is the key to a healthier body and no infections.
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