Smoking, a practice where in substance, more usually tobacco or cannabis is burned, causes the release of active substances such as Nicotine. Smoking is primarily practiced as an administration route for recreational drug use (Royal College of Physicians, 2012). It has been estimated that, every year in the United Kingdom, around 250,000 young people start smoking on a regular manner. Of these, around 70% of them start before the age of 18 and 86% by the age of 19 years and more. The portion of children who have never smoked continued to decline in a rapid manner. Similar to the previous years, females are more likely than males to have ever smoked. The incidence of regular day to day smoking was found to increase with age from a less than 0.5% of 11 year olds to 13% of 17-year olds (HM Government, 2010).
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Long-term and Short-term consequences of Smoking
Amongst the young individuals, the short-term health implications of smoking involve respiratory and non-respiratory effects, nicotine addiction and the related risk of other drug use. The long term consequences of youth smoking on the other side are strengthened by the fact that most of the young adolescents who smoke at a regular basis persist to smoke all through their adult stage. In young adults, smoking causes cardiovascular complications and stroke. Research studies have even indicated that smoking hurts the physical fitness of young individuals and influence their performance and endurance. Smoking at a very early age, enhances the risk of lung cancer. For many types of smoking related cancers, the risk enhances as the young individuals continue to smoke. Teenage smokers experience shortness of breath at a rate three times as often as non-smokers and produce rheum more than twice (Action on Smoking and Health, 2012).
Rates of Incidence and Prevalence
Young individuals, who persist at the University and played truant from school possessed twice the odds of becoming regular smokers. Whilst the excluded individuals from school at least once were around three times more likely to expose towards regular smoking in comparison to those who had never been excluded. Research studies indicated that, the younger the age of smoking uptake, the higher the harm is likely to be. This is because the early uptake is linked with the increased levels of dependency, lowered chance of quitting, heavier smoking and mortality (HM Government, 2010).
Research studies suggest that knowledge on smoking is a most crucial component of various campaigns focused towards anti-smoking. Though, these campaigns by themselves don’t influence smoking rates, they still result in the postponement of initiation (Royal College of Physicians, 2012). High prices can prevent young individuals from smoking, as young individuals do not contain much disposable income. Studies even suggest that young individuals are three to four times more price sensitive than adults. Whilst the price does not seem to influence initial smoking experimentation, it is still an important tool in minimizing youth smoking once the habit becomes well-established. The National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) have offered guidelines on various school-based strategies. All of these guidelines were effective in preventing the uptake of smoking amongst young adults and children (HM Government, 2010).
On 31st March 2012, the Department of Health launched a “NHS Smoke Free Campaign” reminding about the deleterious consequences of second hand smoke to young individuals and families. The campaign supports smokers in buying a free Smoke-Free kit either through testing or from the website. The kit offers extra information about the harms of secondhand smoke together with some of the tools to assist them on quitting.
Action on Smoking and Health (ASH) established in 1967, had won its campaign for legislation in 2006. The ASH campaign strives to prejudice policy on a wide variety of issues such as smuggling, taxation, health inequalities, and reduction of harm, smoking and other drug abuse complications in young individuals. ASH co-ordinates the coalition of Smoke-free Action and introduced various supporting and encouraging measures. ASH campaign is completely funded by tax deductible contributions from concerned individuals associated to smoking and protecting of smoker rights. The campaign is preparing for its next phase in the fight against tobacco, nicotine. In addition, the campaign is highly focused on including new programmes, strategies and an updated website by August 2012 (Action on Smoking and Children, 2012).
“Quit: Saves Life”, is another smoking prevention campaign developed by QUIT (a charity organisation of the United Kingdom). This campaign aim at significantly reducing unnecessary suffering and death from the smoking related diseases. The prime mission of the campaign is to create a smoke free UK in future. Besides, the campaign offers practical help, advice and support through trained counselors for all smokers who want to quit. Together, the QUIT organisation saves lives through prevention of cancer development, heart disease and other illnesses from the utilization of tobacco.
In the light of preventing smoking amongst young adults, this research study focuses at investigating the incidence of smoking in Roehampton students. Besides, the study also aims at exploring the level of awareness amongst student about various anti-smoking campaigns developed in the United Kingdom.
METHODOLOGY FOR DATA COLLECTION
The views and perceptions of chosen sample population (Roehampton students) with reference to the incidence of smoking and awareness on anti-smoking campaigns were explored using qualitative research methodologies, more specifically Questionnaires. Various data collection sources are utilised extensively within the ethical limits to portray the research rationale which is “Incidence of Smoking against Roehampton Student and their awareness of Anti-Smoking Campaigns”.
Among the different types of qualitative methodologies, the use of semi-structured questionnaires assisted in attaining effective results. Questionnaire of self-design format will be used. However, it does comply relevance published and validated
reference. A well-organised questionnaire containing open and closed ended questions was used and it provided deeper illustrations than is actually possible with the structured type. Since the research study encompassed consideration of anti-smoking campaigns, (over traditional type), the choice of questionnaires is the finest method of choice. From the illustrations presented in the introduction, it can be understood that, the campaigns of anti-smoking help in obtaining effective implications (Dornyei and Taguchi, 2010). The application of questionnaire methodology helps in exploring numerous intangible parameters and considering the critical findings of conceptual facts pertaining to the smoking amongst young adults (Schuman and Presser, 1996). Questionnaires, in the form of a qualitative research instrument contained various sharply constrained questions that focused the influential factors on smoking and its related campaigns (Presser, 2004). Its practicability of reaching a broad range of reviewers, capability to allow effective and most efficient assessment of the results were the key reasons underlying the choice of this method. The survey questionnaire used in the present research project to explore the incidence of smoking rates and awareness on anti-smoking campaigns, included questions on the competence, complications and long term consequences of smoking (Beiske, 2007). In addition, the procedural litheness of exercising through telephone, electronic mail, face to face conversation or any form of source allowed its choice for carrying out numerous ranges of research studies (Schuman and Presser, 1979).
Keeping in mind, the availability of time and resources to the selected participants, the use of this methodology can be determined as one among the paramount and expedient forms of data collection in assessing the awareness on anti-smoking campaigns and incidence of smoking rates in young adults (Schuman and Presser, 1979). The two types of questions, open and closed ended questions will allow the participants in expressing their own opinions, suggestions and views about the topic (Foddy, 1993). Uses of these questions offer the possibility of investigating the spontaneous and quick responses offered by the participants (Schuman and Presser, 1979). Open and closed ended questions act as powerful communication tools in gathering information about the smoking and its complications in young adults. In addition, these questions solicited additional information on from the respondent (Foddy, 1993).
As the present research work does involve the primary observations with the young individuals and students of Roehampton University, obtaining ethical consideration is relatively complex and needs approval from the research coordinator as well to carry out secondary research analysis. However, while analysing the observations, the required ethical guidelines will be followed to ensure about their adherence to appropriate ethical standards. All the participants involved in the study reside locally within the United Kingdom and may be offered with the study information sheets detailing the process of research (Beiske, 2007). To reduce the potential risk of exploitation and coercion, the participants will be explained that refusal to involve in the study could in no way jeopardise their reputation and position in an organisation (Peterson, 2000). Each interview will be commenced with a specific discussion on the topics of confidentiality and anonymity (Foddy, 1993). The ethical consent form is filled in duly and submitted to the supervisor for the approval, after which the work is commenced based on the framed research proposal. All the participants involved in the study will be completely informed about the guidelines, rationale and methodological implications.
The participants were made clear that anything recorded in the interview and obtained through the questionnaire will be placed confidential from any sort of third party members except the study team individuals. Participants, who were to be included in the interviews will be informed with a provision that they do not possess any specific obligation and are free to stop the interview at any time or refuse responding to any question (Schuman and Presser, 1997). Following the end of the interview process, the participants were asked as whether they are happy with the study and if so, to sign the form of consent, which designed part of ethical requirements (Peterson, 2000). Subsequent to the each participant’s interview and collection of questionnaires, the tapes and documents were offered with a code number prior to handling them to the transcribers. Initials were utilised in the transcripts and questionnaire documents where ever possible and the other recognisable details were included (Payne, 1980).
Descriptive and Statistical methodologies were used to analyse the findings obtained through interviews and questionnaires. Based on the type of questions, illustrations were framed and the responses obtained were explored to develop reliable conclusions. The data obtained from hundred smokers and non-smokers will be compared through mean, standard deviation and chi-square tests. Use of these data analytical processes will help in yielding an unbiased result that can be generalised to certain larger smoker and non-smoker population. Application of principles concerning to these methods assist in verifying, which of the relevant hypotheses are true.
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Utilising the principles pertaining to quantitative data analytical research approaches effectively aid in exploring the relevant implications on anti-smoking campaigns. The underlying ideology of quantitative data collection and analytical research tools, allow in developing a smooth and well-defined introduction, conclusion and other useful illustrations with the use of an assistant moderator. As the use of principles of quantitative research supports the critical exploration of conceptual facts and a deeper analysis of the impact of behaviour, the use of descriptive statistical measurements appear to be as a best choice (Somekh and Lewin, 2005).
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Minimising smoking rates amongst young adults can be considered as a complex task and it appears to be intimidating particularly for children owing to their perceptions, separation effects, stressful experiences and various other reasons. Assisting them to enter in a new environment involves procuring adequate knowledge on current social and legal practices, placement conditions and underlying factors affecting smoking prevention. Besides these, the illustrations depicted within the actual research review span over a considerable period of time. Various policies and practices need to be developed and changes that prevailed in the profile of young smokers must also not be disregarded. The steps necessary for the prevention of smoking in should be examined and the recommendations associated to the concept must be implemented accordingly.
The research work is intended to take place across a given extent of time and for the knowledge of the researcher and idea of concerned supervisor, it is essential that a time plan is designed which gives details about stages of work. The following figure represents a Gantt chart representing tasks week by week.
Framing a research proposal
Obtaining ethical approval
Literature search and reviewing of selected literature
Analysis of selected Literature
Summarizing results & combining evidences of analysis
Discussion with supervisor and preparation of draft version
Writing up final research proposal
Submission of work
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