Endocrine system is defined as the network of the glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream, (Papalia E. Diane &Sally Wendkos, 1985). This means that the hormone of the human body are the chemicals that are responsible to influence the rate or direction of activity in the distant target organs by speeding up or inhibiting the growth of the cells in those organs.
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The nervous system is not the only biological system that governing the behavior of human, (Baxter, J.D.& Funder, W.J1979). But rather both the central and the peripheral nervous system work closely with the endocrine system, a series ductless gland that secrete the hormones directly into the bloodstream. Hormones are very active in the maintenance of the homeostasis, the proper balance in the body internal state.
Thus, both the autonomic nervous system and proper balance in the body internal state. Thus, both the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system work together to achieve the equilibrium, (Baxter, J. D, &Funder, W.J 1979). The crucial coordinator of both systems is the hypothalamus, which provides the mechanism by which the brain exerts control over the endocrine system and by which the endocrine system exerts control over the brain. For instance, the brain causes the release of the hormones that affect the body tissue, and as result of the testosterone on the shape of the larynx thereby causing the deeper voices in males. Conversely, hormones may be permanently alter the brain cells are organized and the ability of the estrogen to alter cells in the hypothalamus that governing adult sexual behavior.
Description of the Endocrine System and it Rated Functions
The endocrine gland as members of the orchestra, the conductor would be the pituitary, which are the master gland. This gland has two subdivisions the anterior pituitary, which is made of same embryological tissue as the throat and it is the true endocrine organ of the human system (Axelrod, J.&T.D. Reisine, 1984). And the anterior pituitary secretes large number of hormones. The hypothalamus controls the release of the hormones by the means of the hormone releasing factor.
The endocrine system is made up of the various hormones, which performed different function as part of the human body over a given period of time. These include the following:
The adrenal gland contained the aldosterone or androstenedione hormone which functions as an excretion of sodium and potassium. It also helped in the growth of pubic and underarm hair of the human and it promotes the sex derive over a given period of time.
The medulla contained cortisone and the epinephrine hormones which performed the function of removing the metabolic substance in the body. And this hormone also enhanced the body to be able response the stress and how to manage the stress situation in everyday life of human.
The hypothalamus gland contained the releasing hormones of the human body that control the anterior pituitary hormone secretion.
The kidney gland contained the rennin hormone which controls the aldosterone secretion, and it also controlled the blood pressure of the human.
The pancreas gland: it contained the insulin hormones that regulate the waste substance in the human body. (That is the metabolism substance).
The pituitary gland is another vital gland that contained two glands namely the anterior gland which is made up with the andermocotropic hormones, which controlled the adrenal cortex. It also contained the growth hormones that enhanced human growth and its responsible to the removal of metabolism substance in human.
The testes gland contained the testosterone hormone that performed the function of maturation of the male reproductive system that is it responsible for sperm production, secondary sex characteristic and the sex drive of the human.
The thyroid gland is made up with the thyroxins that are responsible for the energy metabolism, body growth and the development of the individuals.
According to Oxford Advanced Leaner’s Dictionary, digestive system is the breaking down of food particles into smaller substance which can easily be absorbed by the bloodstream. The endocrine system contained an hormone which is made up of the insulin (Cahill, G.F&McDevitt, H. O. 1981), that helped to break down the sugary substance in the human body and the rennin also act on the protein food substance and convert it into smaller particles which passes down to the smaller intestines and these are excreted by the endocrine secretion organ which in the stomach and the intestine secrete a number of hormones that enhanced in the body regulation of human.
Excretion system is defined as the process of removing the metabolic or waste materials from the body, (Alexander, E. 1986). The endocrine system contained Aldosterone and Androstenedione hormones that helped to excrete the metabolic or waste materials from the human body.
The cortisone hormone of the endocrine system also enhanced in the excretion of the waste metabolic substance. For instance the pancreas of the endocrine system gland helped in the regulation of metabolism substance in the human body.
The respiration system is considered as the three separated but related functions that is the ventilation, the gas exchange that occurred in between the blood and the other tissues of the human body, and the oxygen utilization by the tissues energy reaction of the cell respiration, (Anderson, E. 1977).
The nervous system is divided into two parts namely, the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. (Andreasen, N.C, 1988) defined the nervous system that is made up of the brain and the spinal cord. The peripheral nervous systems control crucial nerves that arise from the brain and the spinal cord. The nervous system is composed of the two principal’s type of cells that is the neurons and the neuroglia. The endocrine system and nervous system work together to achieve the equilibrium of the body. Neurons are the basic structural and the functional units of nervous system
This system are specialized to respond to the physical and the chemical stimuli conduct electrochemical impulses and releases specific chemical regulation and it is also performed a function of strong memory thinking and controlling muscles and glands.
Neuroglia are supportive cell in the nervous system that helped the function of the neuroglia are about five times more abundant than neurons and it have limited mitotic abilities than the brain, that is the brain that occur in adult are usually composed of the neuroglia than the neurons, (Van De Graft, M. Kent, 1985-1995).
Skeletal muscles are arranged base it functional groups that are adaptive in causing particular movement within each muscles the fibers are arranged in a specific pattern that provides specific functional capabilities. The skeletal muscles constitutes it own body system and accounts for approximately 40%nof the body weight over 600nindividual muscles make up the skeletal muscles.
Conditions and Causes Associated with the Endocrine
The condition that is associated with the endocrine is the “glandular problem” this is the situation where the thyroid glands are said to underactive and this normally prevents the person from “burning up” food. The endocrine influence of the obesity supposedly resulted from a condition over which the individual has no control and it also result in glandular fever.
Another conditions associated with the endocrine system is the Addison’s Syndrome. This is inadequate secretion of corticosteroid hormones by the adrenal glands, and sometimes this happens as a result of tuberculosis infection.
The third condition of endocrine system is amenorrhea. The primary amenorrhea is the situation where the menstrual fail appear in female during the puberty. It is normal cause by the absence of the ovaries. The secondary amenorrhea is a situation where the menstrual period stop after establishment of puberty) may be caused by disorders of the hypothalamus, deficiency of ovarian, pituitary, or thyroid hormones, mental disturbance, depression, anorexia nervosa, or a major change of surrounding or circumstances.
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Another condition associated with the endocrine system is the polycystic ovarian syndrome. This is the hormone disorder characterized by incomplete development of Graafian follicles in the ovary due to inadequate secretion of luteinizing hormone; the follicles fail to ovulate and remain as multiple cysts distending the ovary. Sometime, the imbalance of the hormone result in obesity, hirsute and acne and the woman is infertile due to lack of ovulation.
Cushing syndrome is condition where there is excess amount of cortico-steriod hormone in the body.
The Addison’s syndrome include weakness, loss of energy, low blood pressure and also pigmentation of the human skin.
The primary and the secondary amenorrhea results in nervousness; irritability, emotional disturbances, headache and depression. And it affect some women for about 10 das prior to menstruation.
The Cushing’s syndrome results in weight gain, reddening of the face and neck, excess growth of the body and facial hair, raised blood pressure, loss of mineral from the bones and raised blood glucose levels and sometimes mental disturbances .
Prevention of the glandular fever includes the following.
Wash hands regularly, particularly after sneezing or coughing.
Avoid sharing personal items
Avoid eating and drinking share food
The prevention of Addison’s is by formerly fatal, and such disease is now treatable by replacement of hormone therapy.
The prevention of primary amenorrhea and the secondary amenorrhea is also done by the replacement of therapy with associated increase in risk of breast cancer.
The treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome can be controlled by the administration of the appropriate hormone in the body system.
Endocrine system is the vital system in humanity that enhance the body part, endocrine system is in charge of the body processes that take place in the gradually way such as the cell growth. It usually processes like breathing and the body movement of human are controlled by the nervous system. However, the nervous system and the endocrine system are separate and it usually work together to help the body system function effectively and efficiently, (Andreasen, N.C. 1988). The endocrine system is made up of gland and hormones.
The hormone of the body are the body messengers which helps to transfer and instruction information from one set of cells to another. Different hormones move through the bloodstream and each hormones are designed to affect a certain cells of the body. The gland of the endocrine system is a group of cells that produces and secretes or give off, a chemicals. The gland of the body removes or selects the waste materials in the human body such waste materials include the sweat and salivary glands release secretion in the skin and in the mouth. The endocrine system is a vital glands simply because it enhanced in the reproduction system of humans.
In the nutshell, endocrine system is most important system in the human system that helped the body system to function effectively and efficiently. The endocrine system is a complex group of glands that helps to control the reproduction system of human, the metabolism, growth and the development through a substance called the hormones of the human being. This system controls the way human being respond to their surrounding and it provides the proper amount of energy that the human body needs to be able to function well, (Papalia, E. Diane &Sally, W. 1985).
In some cases, the glands of the endocrine systems are impaired and this can result in “the imbalance of hormone”. The imbalance of hormone or condition of endocrine system can affect the health of the individuals in various ways and some of this endocrine conditions are vary serious. These imbalance hormone or endocrine system conditions are the growth disorder, the menopause, hormone abuse, the glandular problem, the Addison’s, Cushing’s polycystic ovarian, pituitary disorder, diabetes and among others.
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