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Dalit Literature

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: English Literature
Wordcount: 5429 words Published: 3rd Sep 2021

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Fortunately I read the novel Untouchable by Mulk Raj Anand and the novel Thottiyude Makan by Thakazhy Sivasankara Pillai. I realize that the two works have some kind of similarities. On the basis of this idea, I read some of the novels of Mulk Raj Anand and Thakazhy Sivasankara Pillai. It leads to me an interest to study this topic.

Mulk Raj Anand and Thakazhy Sivasankara Pillali are the two famous novelist displays his deep understanding of the pathos and tragedy in the life of the social under dogs in India. So these two novelists have historically import ants in Indian literature. Indian freedom struggle and Nationalist movement has got good results through the works of these writers.

Mulk Raj Anand is an anglo Indian novelist. Most of the readers were read the original translated works of him. So he was familiar with all of them Thakazhy Sivasankara Pillai is known as the story writer of Kuttanad; .He wrote about women, dalit and environment.


Dalit literature is the literature of the Dalits, by the Dalits and for the Dalits. Dalit(oppressed or broken) is not a new word. Apparently it was used in the 1930’s as a Hindi and Marathi translation of ‘depressed classes’ a term the British used for what are now called the scheduled castes. In 1970s the ‘Dalit Panthers’ revived the term and expanded its reference to include scheduled tribes, poor peasants, women and all those being exploited politically, economically and in the name of religion. So Dalit is not caste. It is a symbol of change and revolution.

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The term” Dalit literature” can into use in 1958, when the first conference of Maharashtra Dalit Sahitya Sangha (Maharashtra Dalit Literature Society). Dalit literature is an important stream of Indian writing in English and other languages of India. It is literature about the oppressed classes and caste of India. A tradition of Dalit writing can be traced to eleventh century writer Cekkilar [Periyapuranam]. Modern Dalit writings are founded on the works and ideological insights of Ambedkar, the chief architect of the constitution of India. Dalit writing is in reparably tied to dalit liberation movements in various parts of India. This category of literature become a significant presents in the 1960’s in Marathi literature and later in Hindi, Tamil and Malayalam as well as English poems, short stories, novels besides autobiographies from the major genres of Dalit expression. These writings formed a collective voice that questioned through articulation of their social reality the kind of writings that made them in visible or distorted their identity. Traditionally Dalits were considered to be beyond the pale of varna or caste system. They were originally considered as panchama or the fifth group beyond the fourfold division of Indian people. They were not allowed to let their shadow full upon a non- Dalit caste member and they were required the sweep the ground. Where they walked to remove the ‘contamination’ of their foot full. Dalit were forbidden to worship in temple or draw water from the same wells as caste Hindus and they usually lived in segregated neighborhood outside the main village. In the Indian country side, the Dalit villages are usually a separate enclave a kilometer or so outside the main village where the other Hindu caste resides.

Some upper caste Hindus did warm to Dalits and Hindu priests demoted to low caste- rank. An example of the latter was Dnyaneshawar, who was excommunicated into Dalit status in the 13th century but continued to compose the Dnyaneshwari, a commentary on the Bhagavad gita. Eknath another excommunicated Brahmin, fought for the right of untouchable during the Bhakti period.

Historical examples of Dalit priest include chokhamela in the 14th centuary. Who was India’s first rewarded Dalit poet. The declaration by princely states of Kerala between 1936 and 1947 that temples were opened to all Hindus went a long way towards ending the system of UN touch ability in Kerala. According to Kerala tradition the Dalits were focused to maintain at distance of 96 feet from Namboothiries, 64 feet from Nair’s and 48 feet from other upper caste, as they were thought to pollute them.

Many similar castes collective with different caste names grouped under the umbrella terms Nair and Ezhava and consolidated their power, Dalits remained fragmented as castes and sub castes. At a large stage in Kerala’s history, the elite communities and casts which had earlier consolidated their position through identity politics transformed their accumulated energies into nation building politics and class politics. The elite classes to promote their own martial and cultural bi as an empowerment they saw as their birth right.

Malayalam, Accepted by many scholars to have evolved from Tamil roughly in the 9th century has a history of writing that dates back to the 12th century. The aesthetics of Malayalam literature have been over determined by the literary traditions of Sanskrit. Which include ‘sruthi’ (cosmic, subliminal communication) Smrithi (remembered literature, secondary texts), and epics and legends (ithihasa purana tradition). Beginning with Kunthalatha said to be the first written novel in Malayalam. Process continued without much difference in perspective. In these works, ‘Hindu spirituality’ was embraced as the sole solution to the complexity of human existence, there by ignoring a dynamic and productive life- world. It was the pain of this group on which the upper- caste Hindu world of leisure was based. The literature produced by upper caste novelists was the by-product of a lethargic lifestyle, far removed from the world of sweat and toil which supported it. Culturally and epistle mologically focused on concepts like moksha, nirvriti and anubhooti [spiritual liberation, Fulfillment and Sensual ecstasy]. It is easy to see that dominant literary tradition of the period known as manipravalam had its Focus Solely on Sexuality and Self indulgence and was in tune with the luxurious lifestyle of the upper caste of the time, in Kerala.

Any movement away from the centre that the ‘grand’ is obligated to make creates a space and platform for the birth of the little.

From the 1990’s onwards the Malayalam literary scenario has seen celebrations of the differing and plural voices of the historically marginalized, oppressed, and unrepresented. This not only includes the Dalit discourse but other silenced groups- feminists, environmentalists and religious and sexual minorities. One of the characteristic features of emerged and emerging discourses is its tension with the national imagination. Hence, they seek alliance and constellations with the transnational micro, and the local. Any new movement has to pass through three phases: ridicule, resistance and acceptance. Dalit literature in the world has fast-forwarded to the third phrase and is beginning to provide the color and power that only people who live close to the earth can express.

The earliest known historical people to have rejected the caste system were Gautama Budha and Mahavera their teaching eventually became independent religions called Bhuddism and Jainism. The earliest known reformations with in Hinduism happen during the medieval period when the Bhakti movements actively encouraged the participation and inclusion of Dalits, in the 19th century. The Bhrahma samaj, Arya samaj, and Ramakrishna mission actively participated in the emancipation of Dalits. While there always have been segregated places for dalits to worship, the first “upper-caste” temple to openly welcome Dalits to their fold was the Laxmi narayan temple in wardha in the year 1928.

Even before Ambedkar, Ayyankali, the leader of the Sadhujana Movement, realized that the leader of the social justice was freedom. Ayyankalis politics was about the emancipation of all the oppressed people and a radical Tran’s formation at the whole of society. Sadhujanans formulated by Ayyankali, was the coceptualisation of the broken people (Dalits) locating them as the agents of history, as the production of material wealth.

In the context of traditional Hindu society, Dalit status has often been historically associated with occupation regarded as radically impure, such as any involving leather work, butchering or removal of rubbish, animal carcasses and waste. Dalit worked as manual laborers clean in street, latrines and sewers. Encasing in these activities was considered to be considered contagious and banned from full participation in Hindu social life. For example they could not enter the temple nota school, and were required for stay outside the village.

Since 19050, India has enacted and implemented many laws and social activities to protect and improve the socio economics condition of its Dalit population by 1795, of all job in India. India democratically elected K.R.Narayan, a dalit, as the nation’s president.

Today there is no such practice like UN touch ability; it is observance is criminal offence. However educational opportunities to Dalits in Kerala remain limited.


Mulk Raj Anand (December 12,1905-september 28,2004) was an Indian writer in English, notable for his depiction of the lives of the poorer castes in traditional Indian society. One of the pioneers of Indo-Anglican fiction, he, together with R.K. Narayanan, was one of the first India-based writers in English to gain an international readership. Born in Peshawar, he studied at Khals a college, Amritsar, before moving to England where he at tended university college London as an undergraduate and later Cambridge university, graduating with a Ph D in 1929. During this time he forged friendships with members of the Bloomsbury Group. He spent some time in Geneva, lecturing at the League of Nations school of intellectual cooperation. Anad’s literary career was launched by family tragedy, instigated by the rigidity of the caste system. His first prose essay was a response to the suicide of an aunt, who had been excommunicated by his family for sharing a meal with a Muslim. His first main novel, untouchable, published in 1935, was a chilling expose of the day- to-day life of a member of India’s untouchable caste. It is the story of a single day in the life of Bakha, a toilet-cleaner, who accidentally bumps in to a member of a higher caste. Bakha searches for a save to the tragedy of the destiny into which he was born, talking with a Christian missionary, listening to a speech about UN touch ability by Mahatma Gandhi and a subsequent conversation by two educated Indians, but by the end of the book Anad suggest that it is technology, in the form of the newly introduced flush toilet that may be his savior by eliminating the need for a caste of toilet cleaners. This simple book, which captured the puissance of the Punjabi and Hindi idiom in English, was widely acclaimed and Anad won the reputation of being India’s Charles Dickes. The introduction was written by his friend, E.M.Forster, whom he met while working on T.S.Eliot’s magazine criterion. In if forst working on T.S.Eliot’s magazine criterion. In it forester writes “avoiding rhetoric and circumlocution, it has gone straight to the heart of its subject and purified it” inevitable, Anand, who spent half his time in London and half in India, was drawn to the India independence movement. At the same time, he also supported freedom elsewhere around the globe and even travelled to Spain to volunteer in the Spanish civil war. He spent world war all working as a scriptwriter for the BBC in London, where he becomes a friend of George Orwell. Anand returned to India in 1946, and continued with his prodigious literary output there. His work includes poetry and essay on a wide range of subjects, as well as autobiographies and novels. Prominent among his novels are The koolie() the village(1939), Across the Black waters (1940), the sword and sickle(1942), all written in England, and The private life of an Indian prince (10953), perhaps the most important of his works Witten in India. He also founded a literary magazine, Mary, and taught in various universities. During the 1970’s, he worked with the international progress organization (I.p.o) on the issue of cultural self- comprehension of nations. He died in pune.

In touchable is in the first novel of Mulk Raj Anand. He is a progressive writer for whom the novel takes the form of crusade against the evils of the society. He has his sympathies with the depressed and the underdog. Untouchable follows a day in the life of Bakha, an 18 year old Bhagi boy. The fictional story set in the outcaste’s colony outside of an unnamed town during the British occupation. The story is narrated by Bakha who is a hard working boy who never disobeys his father despite his repugnance for his and his life style Baktha had worked in the barracks of a British regiment and, “had been caught by the glamour of the ‘white man’s life”. Bakha to imitate the tommies was through Fushun, education and he becomes disgusted with the filth of his brother.

Bhangies are the lowest of the low caste and they are given the job of cleaning the latrines and sweeping the streets. The dirty nature of the Bhangi’s work fathers the view of them as impure. However they all unable to maintain good hygiene because they all unable to maintain good hygiene because they are not allowed to access the local well, as there use would render it impure, untouchable are not allowed to access the local well, as there use would render it impure. Untouchables are not allowed to see the inside of the temple for purity reasons. While Bakha was peering through the window he was interrupted by the priest shouting, “Polluted! Polluted! . Soon a crowd had gathered and they all berated Dakha saying they would need to perform a purification ceremony row. “Get off the steps you scavenger! Off with you! Have defiled our whole service!” shouted the crossed. Bahka randown to the country yard where hissister was waiting. Here he got a shock as the priest claimed, “I have been defiled by contact. This is an example of the hypocrisy of the other castes in their attitude towards the untouchables. The higher castes view them as impure and make them do all the menial labor, yet they all not adverse to sexual relations with them. It seems the idea of impurity is only there to when it suits the higher castes desires. Bakha searches for a salve to the tragedy of the destiny into which he was born, talking with a Christian missionary, listening to a speech about untouchability by Mahatma Gandhi and a subsequent conversation by two educated Indians, but by the end of the book Anand suggests that it is technology, in the form of the newly introduced flush toilet that may be his savoir by eliminating the need for a caste of toilet cleaners.

Bakba is the able bodied son of Lakha, the jamadar of all the sweepers in the town of Bulandshahr. He is made to represent the untouchable section of the society; he is no ordinary sckenger, who is rude, uncouth and unclean. Bakha is representative of the oppressed untouchable caste. We have sympathy for his suffering as he meets with unjust treatment at the hands of the upper caste. He has strong desire to get education. He cannot seek admission in a school because untouchables are not admitted there so he pays oneamma per lesson to two upper caste boys to teach him. It is for his suffering that he is attracted to Mahatma Gandhi and Christ. The fact that sahibs and mohammedans teat his like a human being but only the upper caste Hind us have contempt for him rankles in his mind.

Bakha represents a part of the social history of India. He is a victim of social superstition of untouchability. He feels strongly against in human injustice meted out to him. But the protest of the individual is ineffective against the strength of the false morality of the established society. Hence, bakha is presented as a feeble person who is unable to translate his resentment into action.

Here Bakha represents as a dalit character. The dominating society saying that they are uncivilized people. So they were tiring to civilizing that people. But there is not civilizing programs on the dalit groups. I think of education or lack of knowledge about the world is the main problem related with them. But the society can’t accept, to provide education for the dalit people like Bakha.

They think we are mere dirt,

Because we clean their dirt,

It is the word of Bakba. The aspect in which Bakha is presented offer an elucidating comment on the relations between the self and society considered in terms of untouchability. The colony is a dark, damp, UN congenial place. The thatched mud houses clustered together in two rows are utterly ill- fitted for human habilitation. In looks as through the scavengers, leather workers, washer man, barker, water- carriers and grass- cutters- all these inhabitants of the colony are subhuman non- entities huddled up together. They should be content to live in the gutter like worms only to be crushed by the superior cast people.

Dalit is a distinction for a group of people traditionally regarded as untouchable. Dalits are a mixed population, consisting of numerous castes from all over the world. Like the character of Bakha, only through the education Dalits can improve their life style or change their awareness about their capacity.

Untouchable may be regarded as a classic since it brings into sharp focus what has proved debilitating to Indian society in general, and Hindu society in particular, encompassing several issues affecting the condition of man not only India but also elsewhere in the world. The novel explores the possibilities of interpersonal relations between untouchables and high caste hindus considered in existential terms. However, Anand does not seem to have paid enough attention to one profound aspect of the situation in untouchable, that of his having to reckon with a kind of double consciousness, that is, the sense of the untouchable looking at himself through the eyes of the eye caste Hindus-of measuring “one’s soul by the tape of a world that looks on in contempt and pity” – which is bound to give rise to disastrous division within the self. Bakha’s predicament would have been all the more meaning full if the growth in his awareness which is sought to be plotted by the novel had been rendered more explicit through a probing of this psyche.

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Coolie is the story of Munoo, a hill by who by a quick of fate is made to leave his idyllic village in the Kangra valley. In search of a means of livelihood and with a naïve dream of seeing a better world. The first contact with reality shatters the innocent aspiration of this orphan boy. His fist employer is minor bank clerk, a powerful caricature of an Indian subordinate driven by an inordinate desire for pleasing his colonial bosses inorder to become an object of their favour. Munoo falls four of an overbearing and ignorant house wife and finally flees her some in a bid to be free from her ill- treatment and taunts. He next finds himself in a primitive pickle and jam factory hidden away among the reeking lanes and dark alleys of the feudal town of daulatpur. The proprietor who has befriended his suddenly finds himself bankrupt because of his partners devious practices and is hurled bank into the rank of the laborers from whence he had sought to rise. Out on the street again,Munoo becomes a coolies for a chance to serve as a beast of burden. An elephant-driver whom he meets accidently comes to his rescue by giving him a free ride as a stowaway in a train to Bombay. In Bombay he seeks refuge in the family of a poor vagrant and becomes a worker in a cotton mill.

It is working in appalling conditions and livings in most fun sanitary environment are absolutely heartrending. He is exposed to a new world of friends and foes, of cut-throat competition and treachery, of the lewd spectacle of vice and depravity of the red light district and of the communal fires enkindled and fed by an irate factory boss to break an impending strike. Finally Munoo is knocked down by the car of an Anglo- Indian woman who takes his to Simla as her servant. Here he died of tuberculosis which was aggravated by his having to pull the rick show for his mistress. The boy is only 15 years old when he succumbs to this then-much-dreaded decease bought on by under- nourishment.

There are only two kinds of people in the world: the rich and poor… and between the two there is no connection.

The present chapter attempts to focus attention on those of Anad’s novels which have for their theme another evil of no less magnitude- the system of class. Though class- consciousness is inseparable from caste- consciousness. This canker of class system often results in the segregation and subjugation of thousands of people into perpetual misery and eventual extinction. Class has certainly proved more divisive than caste Indian society because it is able to affect every section of the society at the economic, cultural and political levels.

The novel Koolie Munnu is a dalit character apart from the Bakha in untouchable. Coolie perspectives a class- ridden society based on cash nexus which proves to be “a more complicated and devious world” than that one governed by asterism. In this world the underdog, the coolie in this case, though apparently free, is subject to more rigidity and deprivation unlike the sweeper who is assured of this ‘place’ in the society because of the indispensability of his work. The coolie, ruthlessly exploited and eternally indebted, has no such assuranceor certitude and likes under the perpetual threat of (osing his job.) it is no wonder therefore that Munoo in coolie drifting form place to place for himself in society. What is brought out is a disturbing picture of a harassed underdog, a helpless victim of oppressive forces and a sport of a quixotic destin. He symbolizes the disinherited and the dispossessed of the earth whose tragic life indicates man’s inhumanity to man.

Coolie is veritable saga of unending pain, suffering and prolonged struggle punctuated only occasionally by brief moments of relief and hope. It presents the various experiences of Munoo at the hand of different

Coolie is a veritable saga of unending pain, suffering and prolonged struggle punctuated only occasionally by brief moments of relief and hope. It presents the various experiences of Munoo at the hand of different exploiters in four different places. Thus it is only the exploiters that change: the exploited remains the same. It is same in the case of dalit people the exploiters that change they are the elect class and wealthy people the exploited remains the dalit.

Mulk Raj Anand’s prominent among his novels are the village (1939), Across the Black waters. The road and the sword and the sickle are undoubtedly project a lively image of India.


Thakazhy Sivasankara Pillai (17 April 1912- 10 April 1999) was a novelist and short storywriter of Malayalam language. He is popularly known as Thakazhy, after his place of birth. He was born in the village of Thakazh, in Kuttand, Alapuzha district of Kerala; he started to write stories when he was a schoolboy. His literary taste was nurtured by his high school headmaster Kainkkara Kumara Pillai (1900-1988).who exposed him to Indian literature. He met Kesari A Balakrishna Pillai (1889-1960) while pursuing his law studies in Tiruvananthapuram. He introduced Thakazhi to modern European literature and thought. His novels and short stories basically discussed various aspects of societies in Kerala in the Mid-20th century. He focused on the oppressed classes as the subject of his works, which are known for their attention to historic details. He has written several novels and over 600 short stories. His novel Tottiyude Makan (scavenger’s son, 1947) is considered a pioneer work in Malayalam realistic novel. It is about modernity challenging the rationale of the caste system, that one’s profession should depend on pedigree. His political novel, Radidanagazhi (to measures, 1948) projected the evils of the feudal stem that prevailed in Kerala a ten, especially in Kuttand. The film adaptation, directed and produced by P.Subramaniam from a screenplay by Thakazhi himself, received a certificate of merit at the National Film Award in 1958. His love epic Chemmen (prawans, 1956) which was a departure from his earlier line of realism, met with immense popularity. It told a tragic love story set in the back drop of a fishing village in Alappuzha. The novel, and its film adaptation, also titled Chemmen (1965) earned him national and international fame. He was awarded India’s highest literary award, the Jnapith in 1984. He died in 10th April 1999.

Chemmen is a Malayalam novel written by Thakazhi in 1956. Chemmeen tells the story of the relationship between between Karuthamma, the daughter of a Hindu fisherman, and Pareekutti, the son of a muslim wholesaler. The theme of the novel is a myth among the fisher man communities along the coastal Kerala state in the southern India. The myth is about chastity. If the married fisher women infidel when her husband was in the sea, the sea Goddess (Kadalamama) would consume him. Thakazhi made a departure from his a vowed commitment to realism as it appeared in his worie till then brought in a fish breeze of lyricism and romanticism. The novel acquires the quality of fable in which life in the fisher man’s community is depicted with great emotional details. Chemmeen won the Kerala Sahitya Akademi Award India’s second highest literary prize in 1957.

Chembankunju’s only aim in life is to own a boat and a net. He finally succeeds in buying both with the help of Pareekutty a young muslim trader, on condition that fish hauled by the boat will be sold to him. Chembankunju’s pretty daughter Karuthamma and Pareekutty love each other. Karuthamm’s, mother Chaki Knows about it and reminds her daughter about the life they lead within the boundaries of strict tradition. Karuthamma sacrifies her love for Pareekutty and marries Pallani, an orphan discovered by Chembankunju in the course of one of his fishing expeditions. Following the marriage, Karuthamma accompanies her husband to his village, despite her mother’s sudden illness and her father’s request to stay in his fury, Chembankunju dishonest her. On acquiring a boat and a net and subsequently adding one more, Chembankunju becomes more greedy and heartless with his honesty he drives Pareekutty to bankruptcy. After the death of his wife, Chemban kunju marries Pappikkunju, the widow of the man from whom he had brought his first boat Panchami, Chembankunju’s younger daughter, and leaves home to join Karuthamma has endeavored to be a good wife and moter. But scandal about her old love for Pareekutty spreads in the village. Pallaniz fiends ostracize him and refuse to take him fishing with them. By a shake of fate, Karuthamma and Pareekutty meet, one night and their old love is awakened. Palani at sea alone and baiting a shark, is caught in a huge whirlpool and is swallowed by the sea. Next morning Karuthamma and Pareekutty are also found dead hand in hand, washed ashore at a distance there lies a baited dead shark.

In the novel chemmeen is the representations of Dalit literature mostly focus on Dalits such as blacks, lesbians, gays and other backward classes. Here Tahkazhi represents the Dalit people who are living in the coastal areas espeually they are known as muccuas. Mucuvas are the persons those who are living depended on seas. Sea was their Goddess. The sea gets an important role because their life is depending upon seas. As a mucuva’s Karuthanna is entirely different from the other cast ladies.

When analyzing the Dalit communities’ problems they are the vicitims of the social order. The novel chemmeen is the representation of the Dalit lady’s problem. She did not get proper education and the right for anything our society considering caste as a major part to measure the value of human being. Here ‘Karuthamma’ the Dalit lady physically appearing beautifully. Beauty is the one and only quality of her, lack of familiarity in the main stream of the Society badly affected her life as whole. The matters of education don’t want to think the person those who are in the Dalit family. The Dalit people always working for their lively hood and earning money. They are not much aware about other developments happening in the society. Education influence the personality of one’s irrespective the caste and gender. Illiterate life is the life in the dark. A human being at least should be aware about the world, how it is going on. But here the lady Karuthmma only knew her surroundings of the house. In this novel we cannot see the people from towns. The fisher men’s only enjoyment is occurring when they get more fish. Their life is bound only in the sea shore. They are not much aware about they are not much aware about the other technologies and developments in the world. For example Karuthamma’s father’s main wish is none other that he wants to buy a boat and net of his own. That is what the major ultimate wish of that man. It shows that fisherman’s imitation of Dreams. For that he was ready cheat another man also.

Details are often exploited by other upper class society. But here Karuthamma being exploited by her parents. If she has certain right undoubtedly she will use it. But in the case of her marriage, she did not get a life that she was intended. Unfortunately she was forced to forget the lover Pareekutty. At the same time we have to think about Pareekutty also. He has no the power and encourage to fight and make Karuthamma his own. Even in the patriarchy society Pareekutty is moving backward in the society.

So definitely we can say that Dalit people are marginalising again and again.

Randidangazhi is another Malayalam novel by Thakazhy Sivasankara Pillai in 1948. The novel tells the story of the cruelty meted out by feudal landlords to improvised farm laborers. It is widely regarded as one of the best political novels in the history of Malayalam literature. In 1958 a film adaptation with the same name was released.

Chirutha (Miss Kumari) is the beautiful daughter of a peasant Ittitharakali. Her avaricious father wants to marry her off to the first person who can provide the penpanam or a sort of dowry system that prevailed in the community Koran and Chathan; two peasants are in love with Chiruthai. Chiruthai has a soft corner for Koran who decides to sell himself to the local land lord for a loan. Using this loan money Koran pays the ‘penpanam’ and wins Chirutha’s hand in marriage. A disput arises during the marriage. A landlord demand ‘Thampran panam, a tax levied by the land lords at the time of marriage from their tenants, especially lower caste tenants. Chathan stands by Koran here.

Koran and Chirutha move to the neighboring village work in the paddy fields and lead a happy life. Ouseph, the landlord here, is a cruel big of who exploits his laborers terribly Koran protests against this. He organizes the laborers and forms a union to protect their rights. For this he has to pay a huge penalty. Koran is wiped by the land lord. He turns a revolutionary, organizes protests against the land lord that also includes a strike in the fields. Koran also brings to light the shady deals of the land lord. These incidents make Koran a sort of rebel. The land lord hatches a conspiracy against Koran and the peasant leader falls into the trap. He is implicated of charges of theft. Fearing police arrest Koran flees the place. Chacko, the land lord’s son attempts to molest Chirutha but is foiled by timely arrival of Koran: in the ensuring struggle he strangles Chacko to death. Before Koran is arrested and sentenced to ten years rigorous imprisonment, he had a pregnant Chirutha to Chathan, his intimate friend, and who always nursed a silent love for her.


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