Moen-jo-Daro is situated at a distance of some kilometers from Larkana. A civilization fourished there some 4000 years ago. It was discovered by Sir John Marshall in 1922. Moen-jo-Daro stands as most spectecular of all the excavate cities of the Indus Valley civilizaton. It is strange that at its glory, it was a beautiful city with brick walled houses, pillared halls, markets, baths, lanes, streets and public places. Every house had walls, drains and bathrooms inside it
Harappa is situated in the city of Sahiwal. Scientists and archaeologists believe that Harappa also belongs to the Indus Valley Civilization. Remains of this city were excavated in the 1920.
It is comparatively a new civilization, the regions comprising Northern Punjab, Peshawar valley and Eastern Afghanistan was known as Gandhara. For a long time it remained the meeting place of various ancient cultures, as it was rule by many rulers. A distinctive art which is known as Gandhara Art took place from here and flourished during the 2nd and 3rd century of Christian era. Thousands monasteries and stupas were widely here Buddha’s figures, shapes and monasteries all made prominent features of Gandhara Arts.
4. Buddhist Remains
The Buddhist era ushered in some 500 years B.C. The Buddhist monastery Takht-I-Bahi is in N.W.F.P, it dates 2-5 century old. Some mounds were also found near Peshawar which represents Kanishka’s mighty Pakistan. An impressive complex of Chapels, Stupas, quadrangles and monk’s cells are also found. The great Buddhist civilization is now forming the heritage of the present Pakistan Culture.
It was excavated in recent times near Rawalpindi. Taxila is the most popular name in history. It came into prominence during the Persian occupation. At its zenith, the city was the nucleus of religious and cultural activities.
The main town of Thatta is famous for specimens of Indo-Muslim architecture in the Sub Continent. Notable among them is the great mosque built by Shah-Jahan. The principle monuments of Thatta are located on the Makli Hill.
2.3.2 Architectural Heritage
1. Lahore Fort
It is also known as the Shahi Qila. It was built by Akbar. The main structures inside the fort are the Moti Masjid, Diwan-e-Aam, Maktab Khana, the Shish Mahal and Nawlakha. The Hathi and Alamgir gates are also remarkable constructions.
2. Badshahi Masjid
It was built by Aurangzeb. Its architecture is similar to the Jamia Masjid Delhi. The masjid has been built with red stones while the domes are in marble.
3. Jahangir Tomb
This tomb was built by Shah Jahan. It is known as a fine building of Lahore.
4. Shalimar Garden
It is situated on the Grand Trunk Road and is a magnificent remnant of Mughal Granduer. The garden constitutes of three terraces, one above the other. Besides there is an elaborate and beautiful reservoir, water channels and fountains.
5. Masjid Wazir Khan
It is situated in Kashmir Bazaar inside the walls of the old city. It was built by Nawab Wazir Khan who was a viceroy of Punjab under Shah Jahan.
6. Golden Masjid
It is situated near Masjid Wazir Khan. It was built during the rule of Mohammad Shah and it is also a very beautiful piece of architecture.
7. Mahabat Khan Masjid
This masjid was built by a Governor of Peshawar, Mahabat Khan, during Shah Jahan’s reign. It has a fine massive structure with lofty minarets.
8. The Fort of Bala Hasar
This fort was built on raised platform 92 feet from the ground level. There are two gardens near the fort.
2.4 Economy of Pakistan
The economy of Pakistan is the 27th largest in the world in nominal terms and 47th largest in the world in terms of purchasing power parity. Pakistan has a semi-industrialized economy, which mainly encompasses textiles, chemicals, food processing, agriculture and other industries. Growth poles of Pakistan’s economy are situated along the Indus River; diversified economies of Karachi and Punjab’s urban centers coexist with lesser developed areas in other parts of the country. The economy has suffered in the past from decades of internal political disputes, a fast growing population, mixed levels of foreign investment, and a costly, ongoing confrontation with neighboring India. Foreign exchange reserves are bolstered by steady worker remittances, but a growing current account deficit – driven by a widening trade gap as import growth outstrips export expansion – could draw down reserves and dampen GDP growth in the medium term.
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!Essay Writing Service
In the first four years of the twenty-first century, Pakistan’s KSE 100 Index was the best-performing stock market index in the world as declared by the international magazine “Business Week”. The stock market capitalization of listed companies in Pakistan was valued at $5,937 million in 2005 by the World Bank. But in 2008, after the General Elections, uncertain political environment, rising militancy along western borders of the country, and mounting inflation and current account deficits resulted in the steep decline of the Karachi Stock Exchange. As a result, the corporate sector of Pakistan has declined dramatically in recent times. However the market bounced back strongly in 2009 and the trend continues in 2011.
With a per capita GDP of over $3000 in 2006 compared with $2600 in 2005 in 2005 the World Bank considers Pakistan a medium-income country, it is also recorded as a “Medium Development Country” on the Human Development Index 2007. Pakistan has a large informal economy, which the government is trying to document and assess. Approximately 56% of adults are literate, and life expectancy is about 64 years. The population, about 168 million in 2007, is growing at about 1.80%.
Relatively few resources in the past had been devoted to socio-economic development or infrastructure projects. Inadequate provision of social services, high birth rates and immigration from nearby countries in the past have contributed to a persistence of poverty. An influential recent study concluded that the fertility rate peaked in the 1980s, and has since fallen sharply. Pakistan has a family-income Gini index of 41, close to the world average of 39.
The high population growth in the past few decades has ensured that a very large number of young people are now entering the labor market. Even though it is among the seven most populous Asian nations, Pakistan has a lower population density than Bangladesh, Japan, India, and the Philippines. In the past, excessive red tape made firing from jobs, and consequently hiring, difficult. Significant progress in taxation and business reforms has ensured that many firms now are not compelled to operate in the underground economy.
In late 2006, the government launched an ambitious nationwide service employment scheme aimed at disbursing almost $2 billion over five years.
Mean wages were $0.98 per manhour in 2009.Rate of unemployment is 25%.
High inflation and limited wage growth have drawn more women into the workforce to feed their families, in spite of cultural resistance and domestic abuse over the issue.
Tourism in Pakistan has been stated as being the tourism industry’s “next big thing”. Pakistan, with its diverse cultures, people and landscapes has attracted 0.7 million tourists to the country, almost double to that of a decade ago.
Pakistan’s tourism industry was in its heyday during the 1970s when the country received unprecedented amounts of foreign tourists, thanks to the Hippie trail. The main destinations of choice for these tourists were the Khyber Pass, Peshawar, Karachi, Lahore, Swat, Quetta, Gwadar and Rawalpindi.
The country’s attraction range from the ruin of civilization such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Taxila, to the Himalayan hill stations, which attract those interested in winter sports. Pakistan is home to several mountain peaks over 7000 m, which attracts adventurers and mountaineers from around the world. The north part of Pakistan has many old fortresses, ancient architecture and the Hunza and Chitral valley, home to small pre-Islamic Animist Kalasha community claiming descent from Alexander the Great. The romance of the historic Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province is timeless and legendary, Punjab province has the site of Alexander’s battle on the Jhelum River and the historic city of Lahore, Pakistan’s cultural capital, with many examples of Mughal architecture such as Badshahi Masjid, Shalimar Gardens, Tomb of Jahangir and the Lahore Fort. Before the Global economic crisis, Pakistan received more than 500,000 tourists annually. Tourism in Pakistan is still a growing industry. Major attractions today include ruins of Indus valley civilization and mountain resorts in the Himalayas. Himalayan and Karakoram Range.
2.5 Currency System in Pakistan
The basic unit of currency is the Rupee, ISO code PKR and abbreviated Rs, which is divided into 100 paisas. Currently the newly printed 5,000 rupee note is the largest denomination in circulation. Recently the SBP has introduced all new design notes of Rs. 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500, 1000, and 5000 denomination, while the design work of Rs.10,000 note is in progress which will help the banking industry in keeping few notes in saving accounts. The new notes have been designed using the euro technology and are made in eye-catching bright colours and bold, stylish designs.
Dollar-Rupee exchange rate
The Pakistani Rupee was pegged to the Pound sterling until 1982, when the government of General Zia-ul-Haq, changed it to managed float. As a result, the rupee devalued by 38.5% between 1982/83 many of the industries built by his predecessor suffered with a huge surge in import costs. After years of appreciation under Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and despite huge increases in foreign aid the Rupee depreciated.
Foreign exchange rate
The Pakistani rupee depreciated against the US dollar until around the start of the 21st century, when Pakistan’s large current-account surplus pushed the value of the rupee up versus the dollar. Pakistan’s central bank then stabilized by lowering interest rates and buying dollars, in order to preserve the country’s export competitiveness.
Foreign exchange reserves
Pakistan maintains foreign reserves with State Bank of Pakistan. The currency of the reserves was solely US dollar incurring speculated losses after the Dollar prices fell during 2005, forcing the then Governor SBP Ishrat Hussain to step down. In the same year the SBP issued an official statement proclaiming diversification of reserves in currencies including Euro and Yen, withholding ratio of diversification.
In October 2007, at the end of Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz’s tenure, Pakistan raised back its Foreign Reserves to $16.4 billion. Pakistan’s trade deficit was at $13 billion, exports grew to $18 billion, revenue generation increased to become $13 billion and the country attracted foreign investment of $8.4 billion. However, following the international credit crisis and spikes in crude oil prices Pakistan’s economy could not withstand the pressure and on October 11, 2008 State Bank of Pakistan reported that country’s foreign exchange reserves had gone down by $571.9 Million to $7749.7 Million. The foreign exchange reserves had declined more by $10 billion to an alarming rate of $6.59 billion.
In July 2011, the State Bank of Pakistan reported reserves to hit an all time high of $18.25 billion.
2.6 Foreign Trade
Foreign direct investment in Pakistan soared by 180.6 per cent year-on-year to US$2.22 billion and portfolio investment by 276 per cent to $407.4 million during the first nine months of fiscal year 2006, the State Bank of Pakistan reported on April 24. During July-March 2005-06, FDI year-on-year increased to $2.224 billion from only $792.6 million and portfolio investment to $407.4 million, whereas it was $108.1 million in the corresponding period last year, according to the latest statistics released by the State Bank. Pakistan has achieved FDI of almost $8.4 billion in the financial year 06/07, surpassing the government target of $4 billion. Foreign investment had significantly declined by 2010, dropping by 54.6% due to Pakistan’s political instability and weak law and order, according to the Bank of Pakistan.
Pakistan is now the most investment-friendly nation in South Asia. Business regulations have been profoundly overhauled along liberal lines, especially since 1999. Most barriers to the flow of capital and international direct investment have been removed. Foreign investors do not face any restrictions on the inflow of capital, and investment of up to 100% of equity participation is allowed in most sectors. Unlimited remittance of profits, dividends, service fees or capital is now the rule. Business regulations are now among the most liberal in the region. This was confirmed by the World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business Index report published in September 2009 ranking Pakistan at 85th well ahead of neighbors like China at 89th and India at 133rd.
Pakistan is attracting an increasingly large amount of private equity and was the ranked as number 20 in the world based on the amount of private equity entering the nation. Pakistan has been able to attract a large portion of the global private equity investments because of economic reforms initiated in 2003 that have provided foreign investors with greater assurances for the stability of the nation and their ability to repatriate invested funds in the future.
Tariffs have been reduced to an average rate of 16%, with a maximum of 25%. The privatization process, which started in the early 1990s, has gained momentum, with most of the banking system privately owned, and the oil sector targeted to be the next big privatization operation.
The recent improvements in the economy and the business environment have been recognized by international rating agencies such as Moody’s and Standard and Poor’s.
Islam is adept by the majority of Pakistanis and governs their personal, political, economic and legal lives, among certain obligations for Muslims are to pray five times a day – at dawn, noon, afternoon, sunset, and evening, Friday is the Muslim holy day. Everything is closed during the holy month of Ramadan all Muslims must fast from dawn to dusk and are only permitted to work six hours per day. Fasting includes no eating, drinking, cigarette smoking, or gum chewing.
3.2 The Family
The extended family is the basis of the social structure and individual identity; It includes the nuclear family, immediate relatives, distant relatives, tribe members, friends, and neighbors, loyalty to the family comes before other social relationships, even business.
Nepotism is viewed positively, since it guarantees hiring people who can be trusted, which is crucial in a country where working with people one knows and trusts is of primary importance. The family is more private than in many other cultures. Female relatives are protected from outside influences. It is considered inappropriate to ask questions about a Pakistani’s wife or other female relatives. Families are quite large by western standards, often having up to 6 children.
3.3 Hierarchical Society
Pakistan is a hierarchical society. People are respected because of their age and position. Older people are viewed as wise and are granted respect. In a social situation, they are served first and their drinks may be poured for them. Elders are introduced first, are provided with the choicest cuts of meat, and in general are treated much like royalty. Pakistanis expect the most senior person, by age or position, to make decisions that are in the best interest of the group. Titles are very important and denote respect. It is expected that you will use a person’s title and their surname until invited to use their first name.
3.4 Population density in Pakistan
The Population density in Pakistan was last reported at 225.19 in 2010, according to a World Bank report published in 2012.
Density of Population’ is defined as the number of persons per square kilometre. It is an important index of population which shows concentration of population in a particular area. That is, Population density is midyear population divided by land area in square kilometers.
According to present census, Karachi Division is the most densely populated division in Pakistan. Its density of population is more than 2000 persons per square kilometer.
Baluchistan province is the largest according to area, but it is thinnest according to population.
Education in Pakistan is divided into five levels: primary which grades one through five; middle which grades six through eight; high which grades nine and ten, leading to the Secondary School Certificate; intermediate which grades eleven and twelve, leading to a Higher Secondary School Certificate; and university programs leading to graduate and advanced degrees.
All academic education institutions are the responsibility of the provincial governments. The federal government mostly assists in curriculum development, accreditation and some financing of research.
English medium education is to be extended, on a phased basis, to all schools across the country. Through various educational reforms, by the year 2015, the ministry of education expects to attain 100% enrolment levels amongst primary school aged children, and a literacy rate of 86% amongst people aged over 10.
According to the Pakistan Social and Living Standard Measurement (PSLM) Survey 2010-11 and last PSLM 2008-09, the literacy rate for the population (10 years and above) is 58 percent during 2010-11, as compared to 57 percent in 2008-09 . Literacy remains much higher in urban areas than in rural areas and much higher for men than for women. Province wise data suggest that Punjab leads with 60 percent literacy followed by Sindh with 59 percent, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa with 50 percent and Balochistan with 41 percent.
Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs.View our services
The Gross Enrolment Rates at the primary level excluding katchi for the age group 5-9 years at National level during 2010-11 increased slightly to 92 percent from 91 percent in 2008-09. Amongst the provinces, Punjab shows a marginal increase from 97 percent in 2008-09 to 98 percent in 2010-11. Sindh remained stable with 84 percent, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa improved from 87 percent to 89 percent and Balochistan declined slightly from 75 percent to 74 percent in 2010-11.
The Net primary level enrolment rates at the National/Provincial level for the age group 5-9 years. The NER at the National level during 2010-11 slightly decreased to 56 percent from 57 percent in 2008-09. Punjab shows a decrease from 62 percent in 2008-09 to 61 percent in 2010-11. Sindh also shows decrease from 54 percent to 53 percent in 2010-2011, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa witnessed a decrease from 52 percent to 51 percent and Balochistan improved from 44 percent in 2008-9 to 47 percent in 2010-11.
The overall number of enrolments during 2010-11 were 39900.3 thousands as compared to 38202.0 thousands during the same period last year. This shows an increase of 4.4 percent. It is estimated to increase to 41596.5 thousands during 2011-12. The number of institutes stood at 227.8 thousand during 2010-11 as compared to 228.4 thousand during the same period 2009-10. However, the number is estimated to increase to 228.3 thousand during 2011-12. The number of teachers during 2010-11 were 1409.4 thousand as compared to 1386.1 thousand during the same period 2009-10 showing an increase of 1.7 percent. This number is estimated to increase further to 1445.0 thousand during the year 2011-12.
A total of 134,118 youth received vocational and technical training under the President’s Funni Maharat Programme and Prime Minister’s Hunermand Pakistan Programme.
HEC is also playing its role in running different scholarship programmes to enhance the academic qualification at various levels on merit basis in line with requirement. During the period 2008-12 a number of 3996 scholarships were awarded under different programmes,3572 scholars proceeded to avail these programmes on merit basis and a number of 1650 scholars completed their studies.
3.6 Rural Society
Pakistan is an agriculture country and 80% of its people form the rural population of the country. The villages, towns and small cities form the rural areas of Pakistan. Their main profession is cultivation and ploughing. The entire population of Pakistan is scattered and resides in villages, towns and big cities. They pursue different professions to earn their livelihood. Village is the most important and pivotal centre of rural life of Pakistan. Our villages badly lack in civic amenities. There is no proper system of drainage. The drinking water and electricity are not available in a large number of our villages. There are no hospitals, schools, post offices and markets in most of the villages making the life difficult and unhygienic. The village population, due to the difficult living environs in the villages, keeps on migrating to urban areas where better facilities of social life and brighter chances of earning sustenance are available.
However, the Government is very much alive to the problems of rural areas. The Government is making sincere endeavours to improve the conditions of rural areas. Modern facilities of health and communication are being provided in the rural areas. Roads, dispensaries, schools, post offices and shopping centres have been provided at Government level. The facility of drinking water and electricity has been made available to a number of villages.
3.7 Urban Society
Urban areas in Pakistan completely differ from rural areas in the life pattern. The urban areas are the centre of social life with greater facilities and amenities of life.
The urban population of Pakistan represents about a third of the total. Two cities have a dominating position – Karachi and Lahore. Since the 1960s, government policy has been directed towards the dispersal of industry, which had become heavily concentrated in Karachi. As a consequence, urban growth has been more evenly distributed among several cities. Rapid and unplanned urban expansion has been parallel by deterioration in living conditions, particularly in the housing conditions of lower income groups. Many urban households are unable to pay rent for the cheapest form of available housing and live in makeshift shacks. Water supply and sewerage system are inadequate, and in many areas residents have to share communal water taps. Inadequate urban transport is also a major problem.
The urban areas, unlike rural areas, are well-planned and well-built with modern residential colonies. The big cities, which form the portion of our urban areas, are the centers of high modern education. A large number of prestigious educational institutions are situated in the big cities which attract the students from all parts of the country. The urban areas have become the centre of social activity because of their multifarious aspects of social life. The industrial progress and the location of Government and other departments in the urban areas have made these areas prosperous and progressing.
3.8 Difference between Rural and Urban Society of Pakistan
Villages and towns differ in function. Villages are usually engaged in primary activities, including farming, animal keeping, lumbering, fishing etc. Towns are engaged in secondary and tertiary activities, like manufacturing, trade, transport, telecommunications, education, medical treatment and other activities. However, these two sets of activities are not exclusively confined to rural and urban areas. Shops, transportation services, educational and medical facilities are found in rural areas, too.
Similarly, there are vegetable fields within Karachi, Lahore and other major cities. It is more a question of the predominance of one set of activities over the other. As a consequence, the line of distinction between a small town and a large village is difficult to determine.
Some specialists believe that lifestyle is a distinguishing feature of villages and towns. According to them, close contact with other members of the community is a distinctive feature of rural life. The inhabitants of a village, for example, usually know each other personally. In urban areas, on the other hand, relationships tend to be impersonal; urban areas are so highly populated that most people do not even know who their neighbours are. This is case in large urban centres like Karachi. However, even in places like Karachi, there are pockets in the city where people who belong to the same community or village live. In such areas people know each other and have closer contact with their neighbours. In small towns, which are in reality overgrown villages, most people known one another as well.
It is also argued that while village life is traditional, urban life is rational. This is not entirely the case in Pakistan. Most of the urban population in Pakistan has a strong rural background. Although the use of urban facilities changes their way of living, it does not change their way of thinking much. In Pakistan, the lifestyles of the rich and poor differ far more than the lifestyles of city and village dwellers. The objective application of lifestyle as a factor for distinguishing between villages and towns is therefore difficult.
Another factor used to distinguish between villages and towns is population. Although this criterion is applied in many countries, there is no agreement on size. In Canada, for example, a settlement with a population of more than 1,000 is considered urban, in Japan more than 30,000 and in Pakistan, 5,000. In Pakistan, a settlement can also call itself a town if it has a two committee or cantonment that controls electricity, the water supply and drainage. For example, Ziarat in Balochistan had a population of 619 in 1998, but it was still classified as a town because it had these amenities. However, there are only ten towns with populations of less than 5,000 out of a total 478 urban centres in Pakistan.
3.9 The Status of Women in Pakistan
In Pakistan the story of a woman’s deprivations start even before her birth, where most of the girl fetuses are aborted. The lucky ones who survive are mostly “unwanted” children. Their life is a journey of subordination.
While being very young her parents, grandparents, elder family females, family males, and brothers decide for them on matters ranging from the very thinking to decisions and choices.
The most women in Pakistan do not have any choices starting from choice meals to choice males.
Before marriages they are under strict watching eyes and are always thought doubtful in character especially when ones are school going, smiling on other males. In this secondary status treatment and doubts their marriages are arranged by the families.
After marriage, her husband and her in-laws get hold of her reins and decide matters on her behalf; like shall she or shall she not have a child every year, or whether she would produce only boys, or whether she can seek independent employment and so on.
Finally when she becomes old and her husband gets weak or may have gone already, it is her son or sons who decide her fate in the declining years of her life.
As if this is not enough, the whole society acts as an oppressor, browbeating her into obedience.
Thus, the word “woman” in Pakistan is synonymous with “endurance.” She is simply forced to accept certain bare facts of life once she grows up to be a woman. Be it on streets, or for that matter in restaurants, a woman is first and foremost required to be alert. It is best to try and not notice, women are told. According to Hina Jilani, Lawyer and Human Rights Activist, “the right to life of women in Pakistan is conditional on their obeying social norms and traditions.”
In addition to that, women in Pakistan face all kinds of gross violence and abuse at the hands of the male perpetrators, family members, and state agents. Multiple forms of violence include rape, domestic abuse as spousal murder, mutilation, burning and disfiguring faces by acid, beatings, ritual honor-killings, and custodial abuse and torture.
According to a report by Amnesty International, several hundred women and girls die each year in so-called “honor-killings” in Pakistan, in a backdrop to government inaction. She is killed like a bird in family feuds to create evidence of “illicit” connections and cover them under the garb of “grave and sudden provocation” to escape severe punishment.
The practice of Summary-killing of a woman suspected of an illicit liaison, known as “Karo Kari” in Sindh and Balochistan, is known to occur in all parts of the country. Kari’s (the females suspected of illicit relationships), remain dishonored even after death.
Their bodies are thrown in rivers or buried in special hidden Kari graveyards. Nobody mourns for them or honors their memory by performing their relevant rights. Karo’s (the males suspected of illicit relationships), by contrast are reportedly buried in the communal graveyards. The promise made by the country’s Chief Executive in April 2000, that all “honor” killings would be treated as murders has yet to be converted into anything nearing reality.
Women who report rape or sexual harassment encounter a series of obstacles. These include not only the police, who resist filing their claims and misreport their statements but also the medico-legal doctors, who focus more on their virginity status and lack the training and expertise to conduct adequate examinations.
Furthermore, women who file charges open themselves up to the possibility of being prosecuted for illicit sex if they fail to “prove” rape under the 1979 Hudood Ordinance which criminalizes adultery and fornication.
As a result, when women victims of violence resort to the judicial system for redress, they are more likely to find further abuse and victimization.
As far as domestic violence is concerned, it is the most under-reported crime because it is generally condoned by social customs and considered as a private family matter.
After the independence from Great Britain in 1947, took part of the land of India and created Pakistan as a separate Islamic nation it’s estimated that approximately 97 percent of population are Muslim but members of several minority religions live there including Hindus, Sikhs, parsi, and Buddhists.
Culture of Pakistan is very diverse it stems it stems from the fact that what is now Pakistan has in the past been invaded and occupied by many people like as the white Huns, Persians, Arabs, Turks, Mongols, and various others groups. There are different in culture of Pakistan. It’s among the different ethnic groups in matters in their dress food and religion and also pre Islamic customs differ from Islamic practices. Pakistan is the first region of south Asia to receive the full impact of Islam and developed Islamic identity.
Pakistan geography is the mixture of south Asia, central Asia and west Asia so the culture of Pakistan is unique then the
Cite This Work
To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:
Related ServicesView all
DMCA / Removal Request
If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: