1.0 History of Liverpool
Liverpool beginning was a humble origins city and it as a tidal pool next to the River Mersey in northwest England. The name of Liverpool was evolved from liter pol and it meaning that muddy pool or puddle. Thus, from early until now it has developed and grown to become the choice for visitor to visit as one of the most famous cities in United Kingdom. Liverpool as a rich city in world history and many architecture and entertainers such as singer, actor, football player and others has been produced (Lambert, 2015).
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The port of Liverpool was founded by King John in 1270. Recently the English conquest the Ireland and John and it also needed another port to send some people and supplies across to the Irish Sea. King John also divided the land of Liverpool into plots called burgages to let people could built houses on it. Besides, he also invited people to some Liverpool and live it. After that, there are probably around 1,000 populations live in Liverpool on the 14th century. Most of the people live in Liverpool which is farming, fishermen, craftsmen with tradesmen such as butchers, carpenters, bakers and blacksmiths. Besides, in the Middle Age, some of wine from France was imported through the Liverpool however Ireland was the main trading partner with Liverpool. Hides and skins were imported from Ireland and Liverpool also exported the iron and wool (Localwiki, 2009).
In the 16th century, Ireland was still the main trading partner with Liverpool and Liverpool also started to develop the reputation for trading port. Other than that, in the 16th century and early 17th century, the port of Liverpool also gets the benefited when the number of English troops was garrison into the area prior and it was to put down the rebellions when shipped to Ireland. At this time, Liverpool was growing and the population will probably reached around 2,500 by the time of civil war in 1642 (Localwiki, 2009).
Furthermore, in the 18th century, the first dock was built in the Liverpool since 1715. In the previous of Liverpool, all the ship was just simply tied up by the store and the port was grown busier on it and no longer enough. After that, there were four dock was built in the same century. Besides, the third largest port in the country behind the Bristol and London was grown by Liverpool. Since it nearest port to Manchester and Liverpool also benefited from the grown of industry. In 1776, the American War of Independence was started and it also disrupting the Liverpool’s trade. Besides, the American privateer attacked merchant shipping from British trading with the West Indies and also capturing cargoes and the ships (Lambert, 2015).
For the next century, all the Liverpool’s amenities was improved and many impressive public buildings and structures appear throughout the town such as Philharmonic Hall built in 1849, the Central Library built in 1852, St George’s Hall built in 1854, William Brown library built in 1860, Stanley Hospital built in 1867 and Walker Art Gallery built in 1877. Thus, the Stanley Park was opened in 1870 and Sefton Park was built in 1872. Other than that, in 1880 the Liverpool officially becomes a city. Besides, at the same time the population has increased beyond 600,000 (Lambert, 2015).
In the 20th century, during World War II, Liverpool was represented an obvious target both as an active manufacturing centre and as a strategic port. Besides, it was also become Britain‘ssecond bombed city. Thus, almost 4,000 people were killed and more than half of the city was reduced to rubble. Furthermore, in the later 20th century, Liverpool was suffered a severe nationwide recession in 1970’s and 1980’s and it also rioting on the streets and high unemployment in the same time. After 1980’s, the city was started bounce back and all the dock areas would be redevelopment and new growth with invigorated (Johnson, 2015).
Lastly, in the present & future, Liverpool was still thriving and in 2001 The National Wild Flower Centre was opened. Then in 2008, Liverpool was the European Capital of Culture. Other than that, Joe Anderson was the first elected mayor of Liverpool in 2012 and today Liverpool’s population was beyond 465,000 (Lambert, 2015).
2.0 Reason of chosen city
For the reason I choose Liverpool city because it was the world-class tourist with more galleries and museums anywhere outside of London. The city knows as a Beatles’ hometown and it is also designated UNESCO World Heritage City. Besides, Liverpool has some city’s greatest cultural institutions such as architecture, world-class music, theatre, art and others. People those who live in Liverpool love to attend the bursting cultural event and they also took part as their cultural activities. From grass-roots through to large-scale events, there is something for everyone in Liverpool and the wider City Region (Merseyside, 2015). There are many attractions in the city and it is also a place to visit when travel to the Liverpool. The attractions included The Beatles Story, The Bluecoat, Tate Liverpool, Liverpool World Museum, Open Eye Gallery, FACT (Foundation for Art and Creative Technology), The Museum of Liverpool, Royal Liverpool Philharmonic, Walker Art Gallery and others (The Culture Trip, 2015).
The most impressive in Europe is Liverpool’s collection of museum. The Beatles Story is one of Liverpool famous band in the world and it is also immensely proud to be birthplace in the city. Albert Dock is an iconic museum set place for The Beatles Story and it also let the visitors on “times, music and an unforgettable journey into the lives of The Beatles Story”. Other than that, The Bluecoat described as Liverpool’s creative hub and it also presenting world-class performances in visual art, live art, literature, dance and music. In short, The Bluecoat is one of the pinnacles in the city as a contemporary arts scene. Liverpool World museum, the Museum of Liverpool, Merseyside Maritime Museum, International Slavery Museum and others are located around the Albert Dock and this all are the most famous museum for people visit (Visit Liverpool, 2015).
Furthermore, Tate Liverpool also one of attraction in city and it is top ranking art gallery and museum in the United Kingdom. Inside the Tate Liverpool has 16th century until today artworks for permanent collection displays. This is practitioner most excited to the temporary display providing the most advanced exhibitions. Besides, Tate Liverpool also use talk, film screening and others to held the fantastic educational events to adults and children. Tate Liverpool just the one of gallery in the city and still have other gallery to attract people going for it such as Open Eye Gallery, FACT (Foundation for Art and Creative Technology), Walker Art Gallery, and others (Visit Liverpool, 2015).
In addition, the most impressive in Europe is Liverpool’s Royal Liverpool Philharmonic. It has been promoted as one of the UK’s most forward-looking music organizations. The Royal Liverpool Philharmonic is performance the world-class orchestral as well as chamber and choir music concerts. The organization wants to train the talent and also support their musical careers (The Culture Trip, 2015).
This is the reason why I choose the city and there are many attractions for me to look for itto understand their city’s culture and value. Liverpool is one of the famous city in Europe and also has many areas that different with other city.
3.0 The Significance of the City
Liverpool is significance and international standing history city as well as it is contemporary and historical cultural achievements in the field of sport and music to celebrated by global. Other than that, Liverpool is also an eminent historic role in international seaport from early 18th century to early 20th century for outstanding universal value. This is proof that the role of surviving urban landscape (Green, 2015).
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In the period from early 18th century to early 20th century, the fundamental for human society had been changed by worldwide. For these changes, Liverpool has played major role with it especially to the New World and it also through to involve in development of world trade, the growth of the British Empire, the Industrial Revolution and the mass movement of people. Thus, Liverpool also described as pioneering city and made it an international leader in the field of dock technology to development of innovation for tradition. Besides, it includes the transport systems, port management and building construction methods for the tradition of innovation development (Green, 2015).
On the other hand, Liverpool is integration and complete urban landscape which is comprises many heart of Liverpool city. It also provides the city coherent evidence and tangible of significance and historic character. Thus, the nomination site contain architectural legacy and it also has cultural collections and historian’s rich cultural legacy (Green, 2015).
In the 21th century, the city is at the forefront of urban renaissance and contains many successful and pioneering in the historic context for urban renaissance. The inscription nomination is an important step in the continuing regeneration of the city (Green, 2015).
4.0 Cultural & Culture Values
Every country had their own culture and value by citing real and especially Eastern and Western country are totally different in cultural and value. The different cultural and value included language, communication, custom, religion, concept of face, group orientation and others. All of this can different the Eastern and Western country cultural and value. In this assignment, I will compared the differences between Liverpool and Malaysia in their cultural and value. Liverpool is one of the United Kingdom’s cities which are the cultural and value will follow the United Kingdom.
The language in United Kingdom basically does not have official language constitution but the main language will be English. This is because most of the populationgot 70% spoken English and thus it becomes facto official language. It also got other local language such as Irish, Welsh,Cornish, Gaelic, Ulster Scots and British Sign Language. Much immigration would like go to the country find works or get better life so immigration naturally brings a lot of foreign language from all over the world. On the other hand, in Malaysia, there are three languages which are Malay, Chinese and India because Malaysia is multiracial country so basically the three languages will be use for each resident in country. But the official language would be the Malay language and it is also translates as “Malaysian Language”. The main language was introduced by National Language Act 1967. Most of government official and academics will revertto the Federal Constitution used in Malay version which is “Bahasa Melayu” (Kwintessential, 2014).
The communication style for the United Kingdom is direct communication and understatement as well as it is interesting mix communication style. When United Kingdom people communicate with other people will see as equal to themselves in class or rank. The United Kingdom is direct but modest. In Malaysia, the communication style is relying on non-verbal communication such as facial expressions, tone of voice, body language and others to maintain harmonious relations. This communication style tends to be indirect and subtle. Malay people won’t make the direct statement and they will hint at a point to talk with people because they feel that sometimes direct communication will might lead the person lose face. Besides, silence is also important element of Malaysian communication. They will do any pause before responding the question that means they would consider their respond carefully (Kwintessential, 2014).
Gift Giving Etiquette
When United Kingdom people exchanges gift with their family and friends, they will giving on birthday and Christmas only. The gift not to be so expensive but it also tries to find something that recipient’s interest. If people want visit other people home, it normally prepare a box of good chocolate, a good wine or flower to the person. Then, the gift is always opened when received. For the Malaysian people because there are three races in the country so every gift for the race will be different. For Malay people, they never give alcohol, do not give the toy dog and pig to children, do not give anything made by pigskin, avoid white wrapping paper as it symbolizes death and mourning and others. This is because the Malay cultural is different so everyone must respect to it. Besides, if want give the food for Malay people must be “halal” food. “Halal” word mean that permissible for Muslims. Other than that, if the gift giving to Chinese people and it is refused before accept mean that resident is not greedy and it is also their traditional and cultural. Chinese people also emphasize the colour meaning which is black, white and blue mean in mourning and red, pink and yellow mean that happy. For the India people, they also emphasize the colour because they feel that different have different meaning such as red, green, yellow or other bright colour can bring the good fortune. If anyone want give the flower to India people as a gift, avoid give the frangipani because this flower they used in funeral wreaths. In short, this three race have the same feeling that the gift is generally not opened when receiving to represent they respect the giver (Kwintessential, 2014).
Meeting and Greeting
In the United Kingdom country, the residents have their own meeting and greeting. The common form of greeting is shake hand when first meet up and avoid prolonged eye contact because it will makes people feel uncomfortable. Besides, they also introduce a younger people to the elder people and lower status person to higher status person. When two people are similar in rank and age, they will introduce the one you know better. On the other hand, in Malaysia, the greeting in social context will depends on which ethnicity person to meeting. In general, most of Malay people will aware that shake hand is normal but for their cultural would slight different. Malay people could not be shake hand with heterosexual and they just only can shake with homosexual then after shake hand they must placing their hand on their heart represent they respect the person. For the Chinese people shake hand will be light and prolonged. Thus, Indian can shake hand with homosexual and when introduce with heterosexual they just can smile and nodding the head is usually sufficient (Kwintessential, 2014).
In conclusion, we can see that the history of Liverpool from early 14th century until the present & future and understand how the Liverpool become the famous city in England. In the history, we also can know that much architecture had been built in different dock and every of architecture has their own story. Liverpool can be said that is no one knows about it to evolve until today famous city in England. All this is their Liver historical experience.
Besides, there are also some attraction for me to interest know about their city and cultural value such as The Beatles Story, The Bluecoat, Tate Liverpool, Liverpool World Museum, Open Eye Gallery and others. All of this is their attraction place for people to visit and also enjoy their local customs. This is because Western country has totally different cultural with our Eastern country and this is chance to let us know about the Western country cultural and what the different with our country. It can improve our knowledge too.
Lastly, the cultural and culture values would be different like what mention in above and different ethnicity of person have their own different cultural and also everyone must respect for each cultural.
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