In western people’s point of view, the Asians look at Asian would be like insiders, because the geography is closed, they are Asia. Moreover, western think Asians’ appearances almost are the same. There are forty-eight countries in Asia, different policies, different religions, and different language. I agree with the researcher who advocacy of a multi-level and multi-perspectives to analyse cross culture. (Tung, 2007) When Asians look in their own country, although there still have some difference among different region, but in generally they have a lot of common points. When Asians look in Asia, but not look in their own countries. Mostly Asians will feel unfamiliar as western people to look at Asia.
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In this essay, I plan to take China and Japan as an example to analyse. I think these two countries are nearby to each other, and even the character of Chinese and Japanese has several same parts. Economic globalization made all of the countries could not exist to grow up respectively. Due to the globalisation process, China and Japan had being enhanced the cooperation activities in the past 30 years. There are more and more multi-national company comes out. Certainly, cross cultural management became a significant issue now.
Some researchers believed in that during the globalisation process could make the difference culture integrate in the future. (Tung, 2008) In another words, each countries culture would diminish, and absorbed the other “popular” culture. After many decades, the whole world only has the “popular” culture exist. However, Hofstede believed that national culture will still be stable. (Tung, 2008) Many regions culture has being grown thousands of years, they should be stable. I partly agree with the previous points, I think the degree of traditional culture impact has been changed indeed. In another word, some parts of national culture will diminish, by contrast, some parts still be stable existed. In addition, some new culture has being absorbed as time goes on. In addition, I agree with the researcher who advocacy of a multi-level and multi-perspectives to analyse cross culture. (Tung, 2007)
In this section, I would like to introduce definitions, which are relevant to the cross cultural management. Terence (1995) concluded that culture has been defined as ‘the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one category (it can be a nation, region, a social class, and so on) of people from another’. In another words, culture could be anything, which can influence human’s behaviours and conceptions. In addition, the management has been defined as “getting common goals done through other people.” (Hofstede, 2007) Then, I am going to combine these two definitions. Cross culture management could be defined as to get common goals done through other people, which constrained by different categories (it can be a nation, region, a social class, and so on). And now, I explain why I use the definition of culture to instead of cross culture. In my point of view, even in the same region, the culture is difference. As I said before, culture could be anything relevant to people’s thinking. Therefore, different people would have their own background. When a manager plan to manage different individual, no matter whether they are the same nationalities. It can be called cross culture management as well. However, the previous theories looks like an extremely point.
In this part I would like to analyse some point about Japanese and Chinese. As a Chinese, I think when a Chinese want to ask for a leave to their leader. They always use family problems as an excuse, because this way could increase the percentage of permission. If leader refuse the family issue, which looks like less bowel. When the colleges ask you to borrow some money, if you choose yourself problem as an excuse, it seems a little bit direct. Therefore, Chinese prefer to choose the indirect way. By contrast, Zhang¼ˆ2009) illustrated that there is few percentage Japanese would like to use family issue as an excuse to reject some business request. By contrast, in China people usually to use family as an excuse. I think the source of the difference is that privacy issue in Japanese conceptions are more serious than Chinese. In Japanese opinion, they would like to separate works and family problems. Due to the special relationship among Chinese, in a same company, the Chinese colleges might recognise other colleges’ family members. Moreover, among mostly family member, probably they know each other as well, especially in small places.
In addition, in Chinese culture, when you accept a gift, you’d better to open it with your friend, and show your surprise. Generally speaking, you should make your friend know you are like this gift. In my own experience, I always open a gift with my friend, because I think this could your friend and you know each other again. Tong (n.d.) pointed out that certainly, if I didn’t like this gift at all, I will use a indirectly way to express my feeling, such as, the package is beautiful. However, in a research reported that when a Japanese give you a gift, you’d better do not to open it till Japanese leave. In this case, Japanese shows indirect way, and Chinese present directly.
Yao, (2008) figure out that throughout the Japanese history, which had recorded by written, the caste always existed. Although recent years Japan was westernization, but they are still influenced by a deeply hierarchical society. Even if in China, such an ancient civilization country with 5000 history, but this deeply hierarchical condition only met in feudal society and slave society present by Yao in 2008. I think the deeply hierarchy in Japanese’s society is one of the reasons of Japanese is a cockerel, even in the peace period. According to the history record, China had a lot of war experience. In the Qing dynasty, the last dynasty in China’s modern period, I think those emperors thought China was a great country, they’d like to self-sufficiency. Therefore, in that long period, China seems stop to develop, and didn’t expand the emperors power too much. Meanwhile, Yao (2008) also make another point that in recent decades, Japanese never stop to develop. I speculate the reason should be Japanese always feel unsafely. Therefore, in American’s research I found that Japan is a pugnacities nation. In my own experience, when I communicated with Japanese, I can feel their protect concepts is very strong in their mind. Moreover, Japanese as a baby, their parents will give them a strict training, which would keep a distance when parents hug Japanese babies. It is a practice, Japanese babies must hold their parents carefully, and otherwise they will tumble. This practice added a survive idea to children. I think this issue is relevant to the fighting spirit in Japanese nation. However, when a Chinese as a baby, the parents would treat them like a real baby. If they fall over on the floor by themselves, the parents will scold the floor in order to comfort children and stop their crying. Especially, when a boy baby comes to a family, the mothers’ parents will treat this child as treasure. Although, the “boy and girl issue” has being reduced in recent years, and in some countryside family still have. I think the treat and teach way to child is very important. Moreover, the parents are the first teacher in children’s mind. The parents’ activities could impact in children’s behaviour and conception in the future. However, if when a baby has a strict survive practise, I think it seems a little bit cruel. I prefer the European countries; the child can grow up naturally. There is not too much pressure to children, but children also have independent ability.
I plan to deeply analyse the child issue between Japan and China, because I think this is an important element cause the different culture existed. I have to admire, the average percentage of good manner situation in the public, Japan is higher than China. The ways of educate children might be influence manner deeply. As I said before, most of Chinese parents treat their child as a treasure. Moreover, in recent years, Chinese family adopted “one child policy”. Therefore, the child is more precious than before. I would like to take my own experience as an example, since I came to UK to study, my mother had being contacted me every two day. Moreover, I have observed Japanese students and Chinese students. Every holiday, the percentage of students back to hometown, the Chinese are much higher than Japanese. I think this situation caused by “one child policy”. The Chinese parents give more responsibilities than Japanese to their children. And the children should take more responsibilities than Japanese children as well. By contrast, I have asked my Japanese friends, they said usually in Japan’s families, they are more than 1 child. Therefore, they grew up with competition. They needed to compete with their brothers or sisters. They are paying attention to keep a good manner anywhere, because they are always in a competition environment.
In China between developed city and less developed city or inland city and coastland city, some culture is also has difference. (Tung, 2007) In China, there are a lot of negotiations through dinner to finish. Therefore, drinking culture is a very important skill in many occasions. In many north province citizens, they think drinking can express whether you respect each other. If you only drinking a little, which means you look down upon the other people, you haven’t bring your sincerity. However, in the south coastland provinces, people can feel you that you have try your best to drink, that is enough. Moreover, when you do a business with coastland cities, you can present more natural way than you communicate with northern people. There are too many restrictions in some north people’s conception. For an instance, Chinese culture on familism, which causes many family do not respect female, especially in north China and some poor place. If a wife bears a girl, she has no position in the family, till a boy bear. However, this situation in developed cities has been changed, both of girl and boy they will treat as equal in family. Contrarily, in some middle class family prefers to have a girl, because they think girl will take care of family better than boy. I have asked my Japanese friends, they said the “boy and girl issue” is not very serious in the whole country. Certainly, it depends on the level of countries development. I think in the developed countries, the parents would have “boy and girl issue” concept.
Even in nowadays, when people advocate freedom, but Japanese were still restricted by their formal rules. Such as, thanks to an important person, Japanese would give thanks by bowing. And when they meet eldership, they need to kneel down to show their respect. Back to the past 100 years ago, I think Chinese would do the same thing to show their respect.
“Wu Shu” (martial art) is very famous in Japan nowadays, which can prove a fighting spirit. However, I think it can present loyalty spirit among Japanese minds as well. Although, this issue is very important in China, and I think in Chinese young generations this element has been declined. I think this point has the common source, which is the Chinese relationship more complex than Japanese. Moreover, in recent years, China has being kept the high speed growing ratio. In another word, it enhanced the inequity between rich and poor families in China. I think this point also increase the Chinese relation complex level. Therefore, the cases which are betrayed to their friends has being increased as well. It is a society situation.
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There are age difference causes the culture difference. (Tung, 2007) In China, the young generations would like to absorb western culture. When the Christmas Eve come, young person usually treat this day as a crazy holiday. By contrast, the older generations maybe stay at home as usual. So I think if the manger is a young generation, you can choose the western method to negotiate, because most of young people in China, they can accept western culture, they are also partly westernization in many management theories. Compared to Japan, they had being westernised many years ago. The gap between generations should be closer than China.
Let’s talk about business issues linked to generations’ issue. If a western business man chooses “traditional Chinese way” (indirect communication) to negotiation with young Chinese, maybe will achieve a maximum result with little effort. Moreover, a large percentage young Chinese, and who is a core manager in a company, I think the one has a living abroad experience before, so they know western culture well.
Moreover, I think the Japanese organisation culture is interested. In another words, I think Japanese’ company are very intelligent. I would like to introduce a case study as follows to prove my opinion.
Once, Japanese archipelago was hit by the strong typhoon, the disaster come very suddenly. The result of the typhoon happened is a lot of the department store losing the profit. In particular, the disaster influenced a region very seriously which was the main area was engaged in by Yaohan department store. During that time, the situation of vegetable and fruit shortage was very awful. Most of the department store companies which manage the same field made the price of stock in trade increasing dramatically whereas the Yaohan department store keep the original level of price. Compare with other department store, Yaohan did not only keep the level of price, but also try their best to snap up the consumption goods from other regions for satisfying the requirement and demand of customers. Yaohan department store did not make any profit at that moment. Oppositely, it lost number of profit because the bids of those consumptions were much higher than before. The more and more customer began to consume in Yaohan department store when they heard this information. After the typhoon, the produces to the store was return back to the original level, everything seemed to be back to the past. However, some department store are be abandon by the frequently customers whereas Yaohan department store observe those customers. This fact lead the market share of Yaohan department store increased dramatically.
Meng Tian(2010) states that most of the Japanese companies focus on the requirement and demand of consumers. Furthermore, the nature disaster to the companies is a good chance to make more profit which contrast with the disaster to the consumers are a good opportunity to test which company are really consumer focused and loyal consumer. In addition, the companies have to work with as long as the consumer needs hardly, no matter decreasing or lose their profit. Therefore, those companies can pass the test to improve their loyalty, and then return for the loyalty of customers. Customer base and market share expansion is a natural thing.
In my hometown, there is a famous Japanese retail super market, named Yi Teng Yang Hua Tang. Whether the people come or leave out, the company stuffs need to belt, and say some greeting words. This activities “force” customers “must” purchase more than as usual, otherwise, Chinese will feel uncomfortable.
In some occasions I think cross-culture management style can be considered universal, such as respect the old and cherish the young. This tradition is popular accepted in such as Korean, Japan and China. If business men want to do business in these countries, they’d better not conflict with this tradition. Perhaps, business men should make use of this kind of traditions to enhance their goodwill. However, I have to admit that most aspects in cross-culture management cannot be treated as universal to consider. They should be separated, and based on the specific condition to analyse. Moreover, there is seldom absolutely standard issue in culture management field.
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