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Injury Prevention Using Sensor and Internet of Things (IoT) for Javelin Athletes

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Computer Science
Wordcount: 3252 words Published: 18th May 2020

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A Novel Approach to Injury Prevention Using Sensor and Internet of Things (IoT) for Javelin Athletes

Abstract: The main idea of this dissertation was to understand the inter-relationships among Biomechanical parameters which describes for javelin throwing execution and wounds continued by javelin throwers. One of the multi-joint, complex track and field throwing events is javelin throw, which needs great coordination on physiological and movement parameters. Javelin throwers mainly concentrate on strong quality and control to produce the power important to drive actualizes at high speeds. By and large independent of sexual orientation, it is significant for lance hurlers to adequately move run-up energy and tossing arm activity into extraordinary discharge speed and to control the discharge. A Great joint power was seen in spear hurlers were related with developments of the shoulder and elbow which is the system for lance tossing damage. These parameters may be modified to decrease injury risk without affecting the performance to achieve maximum throwing distance. Now a day technological advancements are increasing at a faster face, but the utilization of technologies in various sectors is very low. Considering the possible injuries to could occur, this system has been proposed for the welfare of javelin throwers. This indicates whenever the athletes commit a mistake while throwing the javelin which in-turn prevents further injuries through feedback mechanism using the sensor, IoT and Mobile App. The real-time monitoring of injury parameter and providing feedbacks become tremendous potentials for maximizing athlete’s performances.


Keywords: Injury parameters, Sensors, IoT, Athletes, and database.


The origin of the javelin throw is obvious. Javelin means simply spear, javelin is a diminutive word of javelot. Initially, javelin is used for seeking food by primitive hunters and then used as a weapon by the Ancient Egyptian Military in the war-field but now a day’s predominantly for sports. The javelin used in wars was heavier when compared to the javelin in athletic competitions of today’s sport. In older day, the javelin was made up of wood, now a day modern javelin is made of aluminum or graphite. Javelin throwing is one of the complex events in many major athletic events as well as in the Olympic Games.

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The 800grams weight of javelin used in the men’s athletic event and 600 grams weight of javelin was used for women’s athletic event for the age group 19 to 49 and the weight of javelin depends on both the age group and gender. The main objective of the javelin throwing event is to throw the javelin for possible distance without committing a foul. To achieve this, the athlete must give more importance to the aerodynamics and biomechanical principles involved in  javelin throwing. The release speed, release angle, and the throw height are the most important factors which determine how far a javelin travels. The release speed is achieved by a combination of moves that involve the entire body. Both release speed and release angle are more important to achieve greater distances. The lift and drag force are minimized with correct release angle. Lastly, the throw height is mainly depends on the height of the athlete.

In India, the game of javelin throw is a famous olympic style events rivalry delighted in by numerous spectator and competitors and performed at both national and global levels. It has picked up notoriety in the IAAF (International Association of Athletics Federation) acknowledge rivalries including the Olympic Games. Like competitors in all games, spear thrower are defenseless against wounds. javelin thrower experience a high inescapability of shoulder, elbow, lower back and knee wounds. The most widely recognized kind of damage was the average ulnar insurance tendon sprain, regularly known as javelin thrower elbow. The primary driver of wounds was poor tossing biomechanics that prompted compensatory development designs, bringing about community oriented muscle strength. Spear toss has been an over-arm tossing occasion in Olympic style events. Javelin throwers are prepared to toss the spear quite far. Despite the fact that being prepared to stay away from damage, Javelin thrower have a high rate of damage that essentially influences their presentation and personal satisfaction. Throwing procedures legitimately influence their presentation and might be related with wounds they continue. In spite of entangled systems for execution, and high damage rate, logical investigations that basically assess javelin throwing procedure with three- dimensional, biomechanical techniques are restricted. The general reason for this examination, along these lines, was to decide the between connections among spear tossing system, lance tossing execution, and wounds continued by lance hurlers. The two most significant and controllable components are javelin release speed and release angle. The measuring tape is used to measure the distance traveled by javelin after each throw.

To defeat this, sensors can be utilized to scientifically compute the distance secured by the javelin throws. The sensors used are a MEMS sensor and a pair of pressure sensors which come in handy in determining the overall distance traveled by the javelin. Moreover, it indicates whenever the athlete commits mistakes while throwing the javelin and produce feedback to prevent athlete injuries. Javelin throwing technique may vary from athlete to athlete. In general, a spear tossing method comprises of seven segments such as carry, run-up, withdrawal, crossover, single support phase, delivery phase, and recovery phase. This is common for men’s and women’s javelin irrespective of left and right-hand thrower.

Fig.1. Javelin arena

Fig.2. Javelin release Position of an Athlete

II.  Existing system

In older days, traditional methods are used by the coach to analysis the performance of athletes and provide feedback manually to athletes to correct their mistakes. Furthermore, the coach could not give individual attention to every athlete in a large group. As a result, the athletes were prone to injuries which in turn affected their performance and overall results. Therefore, it was very difficult for a coach to select true athletes for further competitions.

In the last few years, a technological training was proposed by many researchers, Steve carried out a new technique in which a High Definition Cameras are used to record every player throwing the javelin frame by frame and it is analyzed by a data specialist mathematically and later a feedback is given to the player advising them to improve their performance.

Fig.3. The positioning of two video camera in the javelin arena

But it suffers many disadvantages,

  • Positioning the camera exactly in the javelin arena is very difficult
  • We need two or more high definition camera to capture the video in different directions.
  • In most of the researcher concentrate only on the analysis of thrower performance. But  they do not concentrate on the following factors,
  1. Day-wise Database maintenance of each athlete performance.
  2. Provide feedback about their performance.
  3. Attain maximum throwing distance without injuries.

In our research, we concentrate all those things with the help of a tiny sensor which is cost-effective when compared to cameras. The SQL database is used to maintain each athlete data’s up to date and also throw mail we provide feedback about strength and weakness of athletes to improve their performance and also it is very useful to coach to analysis about athlete’s performance at any time. Therefore they are doing their training without injuries


Micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) are Freescale’s empowering innovation for increasing speed and weight sensors. MEMS-based sensor items give an interface that can detect, process as well as control the encompassing condition. MEMS-based sensors are a class of gadgets that constructs extremely little electrical and mechanical parts on a single chip. Sensors are a significant segment in car hardware, restorative gear, hard-plate drives, PC peripherals, remote gadgets and brilliant convenient gadgets, for example, mobile phones and PDAs. Here MEMS is an accelerometer and gyroscope sensor used to measure both angles of the elbow and released speed of javelin. Pressure sensors are used to measure how much pressure applied in hand and leg to pull the javelin in the throwing direction, with the help this avoid knee injuries. UART is used here communication device and all the data’s are stored in the cloud with the help of IoT.

Fig .4. Functional Block Diagram of Proposed System

A.     Hardware Setup

In this, we use an IoT based system which is used to determine the distance traveled by the javelin. Two pressure sensors and used, one is fabricated in the athletes right/left shoe and the other one fabricated to the athletes right/left glove which determines the pressure applied on the javelin as well as the pressure exerted on the foot and hand. A MEM sensor is used to determine the take-off angle at which javelin must be thrown. The javelin take-off angle is like 20°, 25°, 30°, 35°, 40°, and 45°. The dependent variable is the distance traveled by the javelin.

Fig .5. A prototype of the Proposed System

Arduino UNO is the main component used for this procedure in which both the values obtained by the pressure sensors and MEMS sensor are stored and updated with the help of a Wi-Fi module. Moreover, an IoT module (ESP8266) is used as a wireless medium which helps in transferring the values derived and stored in the Arduino to a cloud database which gets updated periodically. These values can be used to determine the javelin traveled distance  and thereby monitoring the performance of the javelin throwers. Moreover, injuries can be prevented as the database will be alerted with a warning message indicating whenever the athlete commits mistakes while throwing the javelin.

Table.1 Sensor outputs


        Distance traveled by the javelin (meters)








Athlete 1







Athlete 2







Athlete 3







Fig.6. The release point of Javelin.

B.     Experimental result

  •       First, go to the IoT icon in the Mobile    App.
  •       Enter into this App through your login ID and password.
  •       After logging in, Click on the Sensor icon to access the IoT data are stored.

Fig .7. Sensor output of the proposed system via Mobile App

Fig .8. Sensor Values of different athletes


In this project, we have focused on the problems encountered by the javelin players during their practice and preventing the injuries encountered by them. A survey shows that there is nearly 60% chance of injuries to javelin throwers namely shoulder, neck and spinal cord injuries which greatly affect their performance, overall results, and severe life-threatening diseases. In order to prevent and overcome this, we have proposed a sensor-based IoT system which consists of a pair of pressure sensors and a MEM sensor which are fabricated along the wearers jacket or jersey which can mathematically analyses the pressure exerted by the javelin player on the javelin as well the force exerted on the leg and the take-off angle.

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These data’s are stored in the Arduino which is later transferred to an IoT cloud database via an IoT module (ESP 8266). The results are then finally analyzed and proper feedback is given, and also these data’s can be recorded and monitored by the trainer for multiple players. Thus, the trainer finds it easy to give proper suggestion to every player. Thus this cost-effective method would find a sweet spot in providing the players who have proven fit and can further include themselves in competitions representing their State.


We have proposed a system in which the components used here are interconnected to one another using a wired medium. As a result, these wires remain tangled to one another which when fabricated in an athlete’s jersey may find it difficult and uncomfortable to practice with wires running all over his body. Moreover, exerting excess force to the sensors can possible to damage the components and cause miss failure, Weight is a major drawback since all the components are interfaced separately and connected using wires rather than all of the components imprinted on a single board. Hence, this system can be improved by eliminating wires and wireless sensors and components can be used. All the components could be fabricated in a single wearable device so that all of the above-mentioned flaws could be corrected. Moreover, Athletes find it is quite simple and easy to analyze their performance data’s and moreover the weight of the components are drastically reduced. This is now tested for a right hand, male thrower only if it is more comfortable device than we use for any type of athletes just like left-hand thrower and female thrower and also used for a different sports event in future.


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